UniversityofBonn MastersonGlobalHealthRiskManagement andHygienePolicies BuildingUniversalHealthCoverageTempleinAfrica PreparedanddesignedbyAbenezerGiberhiowt Bonn

UniversityofBonn
MastersonGlobalHealthRiskManagement
andHygienePolicies
BuildingUniversalHealthCoverageTempleinAfrica
PreparedanddesignedbyAbenezerGiberhiowt
Bonn,Germany
9/21/2018

TableofContent
Chapterone………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………1
1.Introduce……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………1
1.1GlobalInitiativeTowardsUniversalHealthCoverage……………………………………………..2
2.UniversalhealthcoverageinAfrica………………………………………………………………………………..3
2.1BuildingUHCTempleinAfrica…………………………………………………………………………………..5
2.1.1Peace,GoodGovernanceandLeadership…………………………………………………………….5
2.1.2HealthFinancial……………………………………………………………………………………………….6
2.1.3HealthInformation……………………………………………………………………………………………7
2.1.4HumanResourceforHealth……………………………………………………………………………….8
2.1.5Medicalproducts,Vaccines,andTechnologies…………………………………………………….9
2.1.6ServiceDelivery……………………………………………………………………………………………..10
2.1.7Evaluation,AccountabilityandTransparency…………………………………………………….11
Chapterthree…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………..12
3.1UniversalHealthCoverageinBotswana……………………………………………………………………..12
Chapterfour……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………16
4.1Conclusion……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………..16
Reference……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….17

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Summery
UniversalHealthCoverage(UHC)isdefinedasaccesstothequalityhealthservice
withouttheriskoffinancialhardshipsorwithoutbeingpushedtoextremepoverty
duetocatastrophichealthexpenditure.Evenif,thesystemdesigntoprovide
universalaccesstothequalityhealthservice,italsohassignificanteffectin
povertyreductionandincreasingsocialstability.
BesidethepressurefromHighprevalenceofdiseaseinAfricatheotherreasonfor
investinginUHCisamoralone:itisnotacceptablethatsomemembersofsociety
shouldfacedeath,disability,illhealthorimpoverishmentforreasonsthatcouldbe
addressedatlimitedcost.
AcceptingandintegrationofUHCinthenationalpolicylevelisnotenough,the
nationalpolicesshouldbetranslatedintotheground.stillAfricaisfacing
challengeindespiteofthenationalUHCpolice,withregardtohealthinsurance
andfinancialprotection,mobilizinginternalresourceandqualityhealthservice
delivery.
ThereisnosinglefitmodeltoachievinguniversalhealthcoverageinAfrica.All
policiesandstrategiesshouldconsidereachcountrylocalconditions.Eventhough,
Africaishighlydiversifiedcontinentmostofproblemsarecommonforall
countries.Africashouldworkonthebasementsofuniversalhealthcoverage
temple.suchaspeace,goodgovernanceandhealthfinancing.Inaddition,Africa
shouldalsogiveattentiononstrengtheningthepillarsofUHCtemplesuchas
Healthinformation,healthhumanresource,medicalproducts(healthtechnologies)
andservicedelivery.
Methods
Internetreview
?Literatures
?Internationalandnationalpolicies
?Guidelines
SearchEngine
?Google
?Googlescholar

1
Chapterone
1.Introduce
UniversalHealthCoverage(UHC)isthefoundationforpopulationstabilityinterms
ofhealth,sustainedeconomicandsocialdevelopment.UHCwasbroughtintothe
tablebyAlma-Atadeclarationbefore30years.Withacentralideaof”Healthfor
all”.whichbelievedtoproducebetterqualityoflifeaswellasprosperityandstability
intheworld(2).
UniversalhealthCoverageisaservicepackageinthehealthsectorthatdesigntogive
aqualityhealthserviceandfinancialprotectiontotheentirepopulationinagiven
country.Theaimandobjectiveofuniversalhealthcoverageisfinancialrisk
protection,improvedaccesstoqualityhealthservices,andimprovedhealth
outcomes(1).
Inmostcountrypeoplepreferhealthoneoftheirhighestpriorities,inanother
countries,theyratehealthbeforeonlyeconomicconcerns,suchasunemployment,low
wagesandahighcostofliving.Duetohighhealthpriorityinthesociety,universal
healthcoveragebecomeasocialandpoliticalconcern(2).
UHCisdefinedasaccesstothequalityhealthservicewithouttheriskoffinancial
hardshipsorwithouttheybeingpushedtoextremepovertyduetocatastrophichealth
expenditure.Itisallaboutqualityhealthservice,accessibilityaswellasfinancialrisk
protection.
Evenif,thesystemdesigntoprovideuniversalaccesstothequalityhealthservice,it
alsohassignificanteffectinpovertyreductionandincreasingsocialstability(3).
Becauseofthepoliticalandsocialnatureofthesystem,theuniversalhealthcoverage
abletoattracttheattentionofallUNstatemembers.
AchievingUHCisanimportantobjectiveforallcountriestoattainequability,
accessibility,accountability,resilienceandsustainabilityhealthstructure.Health
systemstrengtheningisameanstoprogresstowardsUHC.AfunctioningUHCis
organizedaroundthepeople,institutionsandresourcesthataremandatedto
improve,maintainorrestorethehealthofagivenpopulation.

2
1.1GlobalInitiativeTowardsUniversalHealthCoverage
TheWorldHealthAssemblyresolution58.33/2005says”everyoneshouldbeableto
accesshealthservicesandnotbesubjecttofinancialhardshipindoingso”.Our
worldfailedtoachievebothpromisesoftheresolution.
SustainableDevelopmentGoal(SDG)isthe2030agendabyUNstatemembersfor
governmentsandtheinternationalcommunitytorenewtheircommitmentfor
improvingsocialandpoliticalstability.SDGhas17goalswithadefinedpriority
areasofaction.OfthemGoal3isto”ensurehealthylivesandpromotewell-being
forallatallages”.UHChasspecialattentioningoal3target3.8withapromising
initiativeforallpeopleandcommunitieshavingaccesstoqualityhealthservices
withoutriskingfinancialhardship(4).
Atleasthalfoftheworld’spopulationstilldonothavefullcoverageofessential
healthservices.About100millionpeoplearestillbeingpushedinto”extreme
poverty”(livingon1.90USD(1)orlessaday)becauseofhealthservicepayment.
Over800millionpeople(almost12%oftheworld’spopulation)spentatleast10%of
theirhouseholdbudgetstopayforhealthcare(5).In2015asapartofGlobal
sustainabledevelopmentgoaltheUNstatemembersagreedtorenewtheir
commitmenttoachieveUHC.
Insomesettingincomeisnottheonlyfactorinfluencingservicecoveragebutalso
illiteracy,location,migrants,ethnicminoritiesandindigenouspeopleuseservices
lessthanotherpopulationgroups,eventhoughtheirneedsmaybegreater.The
othersideofthecoinisthatwhenpeopledouseservices,theyoftenincurhigh,
sometimescatastrophiccostsinpayingfortheircare.Onlyoneinfivepeopleinthe
worldhasbroad-basedsocialsecurityprotectionthatalsoincludescoverforlost
wagesintheeventofillness,andmorethanhalftheworld’spopulationlacksany
typeofformalsocialprotection,accordingtotheInternationalLabourOrganization
(ILO),Only5–10%ofpeoplearecoveredinsub-SaharanAfricaandsouthernAsia,
inEthiopiaonly