Understand the main legislation

Understand the main legislation, guidelines, policies and procedures for safeguarding children and young people Outline current legislation, guidelines, policies and procedures within own UK Home Nation affecting the safeguarding of children and young people Explain child protection within the wider concept of safeguarding children and young people Analyse how national and local guidelines, policies and procedures for safeguarding affect day to day work with children and young people Explain when and why inquiries and serious case reviews are required and how the sharing of the findings informs practice – teachers Explain how the processes used by own work setting or service comply with legislation that covers data protection, information handling and sharing. Information that is handled by schools is covered by the Data Protection Act 1998. The purpose of this act is that any information which is gathered by the school in the context of safeguarding and child protection, is used for that purpose only. If any individuals concerned or their parents wish to know the information which is held about them, they have a right to access it, in addition to accessing their own educational record. However, there are some data which may not be accessed for example, information which may cause risk to another pupil/individual, copies of examinations prior to release or information given to a court or in adoption or parental order records. 2. Understand the importance of working in partnership with other organisations to safeguard children and young people 2.1 Explain the importance of safeguarding children and young people Every adult especially those who work with children have a responsibility to safeguard children and young people from risk of harm. Professionals have a duty of care to ensure that the children and young people in their care are protected as they have taken over the role of the parent in their absence. In addition to the internal responsibility, professionals must also ensure concerns outside of school are reported fully in order to safeguard children from potential abuse at home. School policies and procedures need to be such that parents and governors are aware of them and that staff are fully trained with regard to safeguarding. Schools will need to take into account the following into their policies Childrens physical safety and security on the premises and on off-site visits. Childrens safety when in the home environment. E-safety and security when using the Internet. Staff awareness and training. Monitoring and record-keeping Partnership and involvement with other agenices. Moreover, it is also important that schools develop childrenss awareness and understanding of acceptable and unacceptable behaviour, whether it be behaviour that they display or behaviour that they become exposed to/in contact with e.g. the idea of personal space. This encompasses both in school and off site and also when using the internet. Children who are known to be on the at risk register, or those who have been identified as being at greater risk should be supported by the school and by outside agenices where appropriate. 2.2 Explain the importance of a child or young person centred approach All agencies will need to consider the ways in which their approach is child centred, for example involving the child in meetings or asking for their opinion in matters that are relating to them as much as possible. In addition, this could also be seeing and keeping a child focused through difficulties they could be facing. Listening to a childs wishes and feelings will be important for that child, especially if they have formed a strong bond with the professional they are opening up to. It will also be imperative to a child if that professional close to them understands their daily life and what they might be experiencing, no matter how hard it could be for the child to hear. It is crucial for the child or young person to know that there are people out there to help and support them when they need advice or guidance. 2.3 Explain what is meant by partnership working in the context of safeguarding When it comes to safeguarding, there will be multiple agencies involved, therefore it is important that they communicate effectively and work in partnership to ensure the safety and protection of children. Each area of expertise may need to have an input in any one case and each should be considered when discussing issues around safeguarding. A working party meeting may be called involving a number of agencies in order to discuss how to move forward in the best interests of the child. 2.4 Describe the roles and responsibilities of the different organisations that may be involved when a child or young person has been abused or harmed There are many organisations involved in safeguarding as follows and each has a different role to play Social services They will be concerned with the immediate withdrawal of the child from the place of harm and ensure they are put somewhere where they are safe and away from risk of harm. In extreme situations, schools may need to contact social services directly where there are serious concerns relating to a parent/carer. Social services may then take the child into care. The NSPCC The NSPCC (National Society for the Prevention of Cruelty to Children) is a charity aiming to protect children and young people from harm. They are the only charity which has a statutory power to take action where there are cases of child abuse. In addition, they also provide services to support families and children through its helplines and draws attention and public awareness to the safety and protection of children. Health visitors and GPs Health professionals may be involved to examine children in order to determine whether the injuries sustained are accidental. They will also always be alert during the course of their practice to any injuries which they may suspect are signs of child abuse and inform other agencies as appropriate. The police and probation service The police work closely with other agencies in order to ensure that children and young people are free from harm. All police forces have a Child Abuse Investigation Unit, which have been set up to gather information and to also determine whether the police should begin a criminal investigation or take other immediate action. The psychology service The psychology service may be called in to carry out an assessment of a child in cases of harm or abuse. They will make recommendations and suggest a course of action appropriate to the childs needs. 3 Understand the importance of ensuring children and young peoples safety and protection in the work setting 3.1 Explain why it is important to ensure children and young people are protected from harm within the work setting It is very important for professionals who have responsibilities in regards to children to ensure that they ensure the child/children are protected from any type of risk. Firstly, whilst the child is away from home, the professional is acting in loco parentis which means we adopt the responsibility of the parent so it is fair to leave the parent reassured that they are leaving their child in a safe environment. Secondly, it is vital that every professional that is working with children has undergone a CRB check to ensure they are suitable to be around young children. This prevents possibilities of abuse and members taking advantage of their position around children. In addition, professionals should also ensure that the equipment and toys that the children are being provided with are safe and appropriate to their age ie. Toys with small parts may be a choking hazard for a reception child as they still may be prone to putting things in their mouth. Moreover, it is also important that gates and doors are kept shut/locked to avoid the possibility of a child leaving the setting as this can expose the child to potential danger. Also, professionals must be aware of allergies that certain children may have, for example, if a child has a nut allergy, the professional must ensure that the child is not given anything that contains nuts and to not be in close proximity to anyone who may be eating something that contains nuts, as this may cause side effects. 3.2 Explain policies and procedures that are in place to protect children and young people and adults who work with them Professionals who work with children legally have a duty of care towards them and should always act in a way that is appropriate and ensures their safety. There are many policies and procedures to make sure the working environment is safe for children/young people. Staff working with children should behave in a manner and conduct which would not lead any reasonable person to question their intentions. Professionals should work in an open and transparent manner where there is visual access or an open door, more so in one to one situations. In my setting, working with ASD children sometimes requires you to take the child to a quieter, stimulating room, specially designed for those with behavioural/learning difficulties. In such an environment, the door has glass windows so other members of staff have visual access or sometimes the door is left open for staff to freely enter if need be. Furthermore, when it comes to physical contact, adults are often rightly concerned about this due to issues around safeguarding. There are occasions where it is appropriate for staff to have physical contact with a pupil, however the adult must remember that they must do so in ways that is acceptable to their professional role. E.g. putting an arm around a child if they are distressed or hurt. In addition, some pupils may also become affectionate and hug adults on their own accord, yet as professionals we must only display contact in response to their needs at the time and behave reactively with limited duration and appropriateness according to age. This usually occurs with younger pupils. It is important to rememeber that physical contact should never be done secretively or for the gratification of the adult, however if a staff member believes an act may be interpreted wrongly, then they should report it immediately. However, sometimes this cannot be helped e.g. if you are working with an SEN child or a child where it requires you to deal directly with their personal care (changing their nappy, taking them toilet). In cases like this, it is important to follow school policy at all times. In my setting, when a child needs to have their nappy changed, their primary carer must always be accompanied by another member of staff to avoid potential allegations of misconduct. Moreover, there are also procedures in place if there are concerns regarding an adult who is working with a child. If a member of staff has suspected that another staff member is conducting poor practice in their role, then they should be able to report their concerns without the fear of victimisation or discrimination to themselves or the person of concern. This is known as whistle-blowing. In my setting, if a member of staff has come under question, they are suspended from their role for a period of time this does not suggest that they are guilty but is rather given as a form of protection for that member so they do not come under any sort of discrimination or gossip if they were to continue doing their job. 3.3 Evaluate ways in which concerns about poor practice can be reported whilst ensuring that whistle-blowers and those whose practice or behaviour is being questioned are protected The Public Interest Disclosure Act was introduced in 1999 to give heightened protection to whistle-blowers. The Standards Board for Englands Whistleblowing Policy and Procedure, are set out, in line with the act. If an employee has a concern about malpractice, they can raise this either verbally or in writing, including the name/s of the individual/s they are concerned about, the nature of malpractice, the background and reasons for concern. Their concern should then be raised with their line manager, however if the concern is regarding them, then it should be taken to the Chief Executive or HR Manager. The Head of Legal will then determine whether the concern establishes a disclosure or whether it should be dealt with via a different route. If the concern is dealt with under the whistleblowing policy, then the employee will be notified of the name of the investigating manager and how they can be contacted. In order to protect the whistle-blower, they need to make a qualifiying disclosure about malpractice. This may be a criminal offence, miscarriages of justice or threats to an individuals health and safety etc. In addition, a qualifying disclosure will be protected if it is done in the correct way, whereby it is reported in good faith and the that the employee reasonably believes that the allegations they have made are substantially true and regard the correct person. During the investigation period, both parties are kept up to date with any progress made and both parties are given the opportunity to recall their own version of events and defend any complaints that are made about them. In addition, all personal data will be dealt with accordingly with the Personal Data Protection Act. Furthermore, all disclosures will be dealt with discreetly and there is great importance of maintaining confidentiality of the accused and the whistleblower themselves. 3.4 Explain how practitioners can take steps to protect themselves within their everyday practice in the work setting and on off-site visits In order for staff to protect themselves whilst on their work setting, they should regularly encourage children to openly express their feelings and emotions. This prevents children repressing their concerns and also enables them to find a solution to their problems. Staff can organise circle times for pupils to do this. In my setting, when we have afternoon intervention sessions with the ASD children, one of the first question that we ask the children are open questions such as How are you feeling today They are then given visual aids representing the different kinds of emotions and are then free to pick which ever one they believe they are feeling. Furthermore, practitioners should give children as much independence as they can when it regards intimate care. In cases, where the child is unable to relieve themselves ie. They wear nappies, when a staff member is required to change that child, there should always be another member off staff present to avoid any misunderstandings of malpractice. However, in circumstances, where perhaps the child has wet themselves, before changing them, the child should always be given the choice of whether they require help. If the practitioner takes control of these situations, it is likely the child will feel it is okay for anyone to invade their personal space and it will be unlikely that the child will report any uncomfortable incidents if they were to ever encounter it. Moreover, when off site, staff have the responsibility to avoid injury to themselves and others. They should have read the risk assessments thoroughly and signed any paperwork to indicate their acknowledgement of specified policies and procedures. Any staff who is in contact with children should have undergone a CRB check, however to avoid any allegations, it is better that staff qualified/unqualified should not be left alone with any child. Moreover, when off-site, it is very important to note that the ratio of adult to child must always be in line with set guidelines. Too many children to one adult is not safe as inadequate attention will be given to each child and this can be a safety hazard. 4 Understand how to respond to evidence or concerns that a child or young person has been abused or harmed 4.1 Describe the possible signs, symptoms, indicators and behaviours that may cause concern in the context of safeguarding As professionals working with children, we can only do so much to protect children whilst they are in our care, however we must be aware of different signs that may indicate that the child is being abused outside of school. There are four main types of abuse Physical abuse Emotional abuse Sexual abuse Neglect Out of the four mentioned, physical abuse is most noticeable abuse. This involves the adult coming into contact with the child, causing injuries which may come from hitting the child, punching, kicking, beating or burning. Physical abuse can happen in different forms, whether it be persistent or irregular brief outburst. It can also be caused by the parent making the child ill and thereafter persuade health services that there is something wrong with their child, hence taking the spotlight off themselves. Those working with children should be aware of signs of physical abuse which could be bruises, cuts, burns or grasp marks if these appear to be consistent, it is important to take action immediately. However, it is also important to understand that some injuries may be due to a genuine accident- these would generally be a one-off. On the other hand, physical signs of abuse may not be that straight-foward to spot. The more less obvious signs may be include reluctance to get changed for PE/parent not allowing the child to take part in activities where child will need to remove clothes e.g. swimming. It may be also the child having fear of contact with others or wanting to stay covered up even in hot weather. Moreover, another form of abuse is emotional abuse. This involves putting the child down regularly, criticising them or denying them affection/attention at a time they require it. It can also involves bullying, which may take place outside the home and school in the form of name-calling, racism or humiliation. Bullying can occur through mobile phones or social networking sites. On the contrary, emotional abuse may also be due to the parent being overly protective of the child and restraining the child engaging with other children/activities which may then hinder their verbal and social development. As a result, emotional abuse can cause the child to become withdrawn from their surroundings and lack confidence. They may also become very clingy towards adults as they may yearn attention or show signs of regression due to poor development. In addition, they may find it difficult to adapt to changes and show high levels of anxiety. Sexual abuse is the most difficult out of the four types of abuse to notice. This involves an adult forcing a child to perform a sexual act unwillingly or touch their bodies inappropriately. Sexual abuse may not always involve contact but can be the adult forcing the child to look at sexual images or watch something of a sexual nature. The signs of sexual abuse may include the child being highly familiar of sexual words/behaviour which is inappropriate to the childs age, lack of trust in adults, clinginess or genital irritation. Furthermore, neglect means that the parent/carer is failing to meet the childs basic needs e.g. shelter, food, hygiene, clothing.This can cause a childs development to suffer and their health to go downhill. Neglect can involve the child being left at home unsupervised/left to fend for themselves, wearing clothes that may be ripped/too small and having a stench. It can also be the child being inappropriately dressed for weather conditions due to disregard of clothing. The child may also appear to be constantly tired and hungry and always seeking attention from others. 4.2 Describe the actions to take if a child or young person alleges harm or abuse in line with policies and procedures of own setting In my setting, when a child expresses a concern or that they are being abused, it is highly underlined that as a professional, we must first and foremost listen to the child. We must always keep a note of what was said and when. This also means to try not to ask too many questions as this may cause the child to withdraw vital information as they may feel they may get in trouble. As a teaching assistant, if a child was to voice a problem to me, it is my responsibility to let the class teacher know of this, who will then inform the safeguarding officer of the school. The concern will then be followed up in accordance to the schools safeguarding policy, and if required, social services as well. 4.3 Explain the rights that children, young people and their carers have in situations where harm or abuse is suspected or alleged In cases of suspected harm of abuse, there are still rights concerned in regards to the child and the parent/carer. In cases of alleged abuse, all children have a right to be protected from harm under the Childrens Act 1989. Where there is a definite fear that the child is suffering abuse, that child will be removed from the home as a last resort. However, where possible, the child will be allowed to remain in the family home and protection will be maintained and achieved by the relevant professionals regularly working with the parents/carers. Moreover, children and young people have a right to receive help where they can express themselves fully, understand what is happening and the decisions that have to be made. In addition, they also have a right not to be subjected to repeated medical examinations or questionings following allegations of any sort of abuse. On the other hand, parents/carers/family members have a right to know what is said about them and should be kept informed of procedures involving them. They should be able to contribute their own opinions and views, however if the child is suffering considerable harm, then the parents/carers will have no immediate rights. In addition, children should always be kept informed of processes involving them and they should be approached and consulted with utmost sensitivity as each child will have a different temperament and will react differently in this kind of scenario. 5. Understand how to respond to evidence or concerns that a child or young person has been bullied 5.1 Explain different types of bullying and the potential effects on children and young people Children can become victims of different types of bullying. Some of these types are visible, however some may invisible, for example cyber bullying. Bullying takes many forms and it is important as adults working with children to be wary of certain individuals who may be more prone to bullying, perhaps due to disability or lack of confidence. The first type of bullying is physical. This involves any form of physical contact between individuals and other forms of violent threats. Physical contact can include things such as kicking, punching, pinching, hitting, pushing, spitting. There are many effects of physical bullying on victims of this abuse, for instance, you notice the child has begun to show a decreased level of academic achievement, perhaps due to the fact that they constantly anxious and stressed or that they may be truanting from school to escape the bullying. In addition, they may begin to self-harm or attempt suicide as a way to escape and may also begin to suffer from hunger due to bullies taking their dinner money/packed lunch. Physical bullying can also cause lack of confidence and self-esteem in a child and you may notice that they stammer when they talk. Another more obvious effect of physical bullying may be bruises/scratches from being hit etc. Secondly, verbal bullying takes place through use of name-calling, insults, spreading of rumours or persistent teasing from the bully to the targeted individual. This can cause the victim to show a lack of confidence and self-esteem and they may appear to become withdrawn from their work and peers. On the other hand, some victims may begin to show aggressive tendencies as a way to counter act or hide the upset they are feeling and in some cases, this anger can become self-destructive ie. Self harm, substance use. Thirdly, emotional bullying takes form through the bully/ies tormenting, ridiculing or humiliating the individual. This includes putting the victim down by saying comments which make the person feel bad about themselves e.g. Your too fat, Your ugly, You have no friends. This can have a very negative effect on the victim if they are being calling fat, they may begin to overeat and turn to food as way of comforting themselves. In addition, they may begin to blame themselves for the bullying and in turn self harm as a way to punish themselves. In addition, victims may start to suffer from depressing causing them to refrain from going to school and they may become clingy to individuals that they feel close with. Lastly, cyber-bullying is the more difficult one to discover as it usually takes place via mobile phones or on social networking sites/apps outside of the classroom/school. This involves an individual or group of people sending cruel messages/comments/pictures about another person online or through a mobile phones. This may be through a public site e.g. Facebook, Instagram or by private messaging. It is important that children are reminded to share any issues they might encounter to avoid situations escalating and getting worse. If they dont, the victim may start to feel trapped and suicidal and they may begin to suffer from depression, causing them to isolate themselves from others. 5.2 Outline the policies and procedures that should be followed in response to concerns or evidence of bullying and explain the reasons why they are in place In my setting, we have an Anti-Bullying policy set in place and the aim of this is to ensure that the school can provide a safe and secure environment for pupils to learn and grow without feeling anxiety or fear. In addition, the policy aims to produce a consistent response to any bullying incidents that may occur. Teachers/teaching assistant must do their utmost best to intervene to prevent any kind of bullying incident occurring. They must keep a record of any incidents that they encounter, whether it be in the class or in the playground. Following this, they must ensure that any situations/actions taken are discussed with relevant staff members and senior management. For example, if new teacher is covering your class and it is known that 2 individuals do not get on well, the new teacher must be informed beforehand so they can prepare as to prevent any sort of confrontations taking place. If a bullying incident is discovered, it is important that it is dealt with immediately. This may involve counselling and support for the victim. On the other hand, it may require punishment for the person who carried out the bullying, but also talking to help them to understand why their actions are wrong. If the child is repeatedly involved in bullying, then the Head of School is informed as so is the Special Needs Coordinator. Moreover, the childs parents are invited in to school to discuss the situation and help to come to a resolution. If this proves ineffective, the school will then contact outside agencies such as social services, however this will only occur in more extreme cases. 5.3 Explain how to support a child or young person and/or their family when bullying is suspected or alleged According to the Anti-Bullying Policy in my work setting, if a parent is concerned that their child has become the victim of bullying, they should contact the class teacher immediately. The teacher will then deal with the situation immediately, which includes reporting the matter to the Head Teacher or member of Senior Management. The Head of School must ensure that all pupils know that bullying is wrong and may use assembly as a vehicle to discuss with the children why this behaviour is wrong and the consequences of the ones who are involved in this. In addition, parents and children should be notified of the various organisations and websites available to them for support in order to help them to cope with the distress caused by the bullying. These include websites such as kidscape.com, NSPCC or for the parents- antibullying.net. 6 Understand how to work with children and young people to support their safety and well-being 6.1 Explain how to support children and young peoples self-confidence and self-esteem A childs self-esteem is related to their self image and how they perceive themselves. If they develop positive self-esteem and feel valued, it will have a positive correlational effect on their self-confidence. A childs self esteem and self confidence is linked to the way in which they relate to others. Children need to be given the opportunity to develop positive relationships and participate in activites where they can learn the extent of their own abilities, which will then impact their social and emotional development. There are many ways in which we, as professionals, can uplift a pupils self image. This can be from simple things such as smiling at them when they enter the classroom, as this will make them feel valued and make yourself look approachable. This is particularly important as appearing approachable will enable the child to feel confident confiding in you if they have any worries/concerns. In addition, it is important to regularly praise and congratulate children on their work and accomplishments and continuously encourage them to strive on a task if they are finding something difficult. Making learning experiences positive for children is important as it will lay positive building blocks for them to accomplish tasks independently as they grow older. Making a pupil feel independent can also be achieved through use of activities which can challenge and motivate them appropriately. This may be through suggesting ideas to extend their competency for example, moving on from 1-digit addition sums to 2-digit sums. You can also challenge them physically by encouraging them to complete an apparatus (on the playground), through minimal hand contact. This is allow them to discover new capabilities within themselves, hence boost their self confidence. Another way we can boost a childs self esteem and self confidence is to respond positively to their requests and offer guidance and support when needed. Responding negatively can cause the child to feel disvalued and they may not approach you again. In my work setting, when I work 11 with my ASD child, we often work in a separate area of the classroom and I often have work that is tailored to his ability. However, on many occasions, I like to sit the child on one of the main tables, so that he is included in work that the rest of the class is doing. This makes him feel valued and not isolated from the rest of his classmates. As of this, it will allow him to build his social and communication skills and also boost his self esteem and self confidence as he will feel he has the ability to take on the work that the class does 6.2 Analyse the importance of supporting resilience in children and young people Resilience is the ability to deal with not only the positives in the life but also the negative setbacks and being able to overcome them. Resilience comes from having high levels of self esteem and self confidence. A child who was able to form secure early attachments will have a strong emotional grounding and therefore will have a stronger sense of identity. Being part of a loving, supportive family will enable the child feel confident and valued, therefore it is important to always value their work and be a good model to them to increase their resilience. Children who come from unstable families are likely to have low self esteem and therefore may be less resilient to dealing with difficult situations. As practitioners, we must always remain patient towards them and listen to them with sensitivity so as to allow them to manage their emotions effectively. This should be done by always remaining approachable and reassuring the child of opportunities where they are able to discuss issues they may have. This will help them to face and overcome them, instead of bottling it up and running away from the problem. Furthermore, for a child to be resilient, they need to be able to rely on themselves and be comfortable in their own skin. To do this, children need continuous encouragement and praise to allow them to approach tasks independently this may be things like being able to pick and choose their school dinners independently, going toilet by themselves, or completing a task that they feel they cannot complete. This can be done, for example, by standing close by when they are picking their school dinners but not intervening when they are asked what they would like by the school cooks. Moreover, another way we can help build resilience in a child is the way in which we talk and respond to things that happen to them. For example, a child who experiences a minor incident in the playground such as falling over, it is important to assess whether it is required to be overly-attentive or not. Being overly-attentive at minor situations will programme the child to overreact every time something small happens, hence they will always rely on someone to be present when this occurs. This will hinder their self-independence and resilience to be deal with situations themselves, especially as they get older. 6.3 Explain why it is important to work with the child or young person to ensure they have strategies to protect themselves and make decisions about safety Every child has a right to feel safe and protected. Children need to have the knowledge to know how to safeguard themselves but at the same time, we need to allow them to take their own risks if there is no chance of significant harm. When talking about certain safeguarding issues, practitioners should remember to do so age appropriately, for example, if dealing with a younger audience pictures and simpler vocabulary may need to be used as opposed to an older audience. It is important to teach children about strangers and how some adults are not nice people we should not make children fearful of anyone that they come across. We must ensure that they know that they must not be left alone with a strange person and if they are ever in an uncomfortable situation with a stranger, that they must either shout for help or go to the nearest shop or somewhere with crowds. Moreover, we must also reinforce how to behave in high risk activities such as crossing the road, especially to younger audiences. It is beneficial to teach them of the Green Cross Code when crossing at traffic lights or remembering to hold an adults hand when crossing regular roads. Some concepts may need to be simplified when explaining to younger children, for example discussing to children the idea of personal space and the idea that there body belongs to them and nobody has a right over it. They must know that nobody is allowed to touch them in a way that they do not like and that if someone does, they must voice it and tell a suitable adult immediately. It is also helpful to explain to children that receiving hugs/kisses from someone, especially from close family is nice, however these should never be kept secret, and if someone is doing this to them secretly, then they should tell an adult they trust immediately. Furthermore, children should be taught not to get involved in bribes, whether it be with other peers or with adults. Some people may bribe them with sweets, money or gifts in exchange for keeping something secret, but children must be reminded not to accept anything from anyone without their parents permission unless it is suitable e.g. birthday gift from family/friends. 6.4 Explain ways of empowering children and young people to make positive and informed choices that support their well-being and safety In order to empower children, we should encourage them to be independent but still manage their risks to avoid significant harm. As someone working with children, we must help to support their well being this can be achieved in many ways. One of these ways is assisting them to understand the boundaries that they may encounter. We must reinforce issues such as turn-taking, patience, no pushing in a positive manner when they occur. In addition, we must remind them that each child is different and every child completes tasks at different rates so it is important to be considerate of everyones abilities. We must also allow them to resolve their own conflicts where possible as this will develop their problem-solving skills and help them to assess and come to sensible decisions in a social setting. Children are quick learners, especially to those around them, hence we must always show ourselves as good role models. As practitioners, we must promote positive relationships, whether it be child to child, child to adult or adult to adult. In this way, children will then replicate this positive behaviour in their own relationships. Another way we can empower children is through a child led approach. This allows the child to risk assess for themselves when they are investigating/playing. In this way, they are given the control to lead their own activities with minimal or no guidance and it allow them to evaluate their own choices and decisions. However, it is important to not allow a child to take a risk that may cause significant harm to themselves or others around them. If a child wants to take a risk, which is not significantly dangerous, we should allow them to do so but still remain supportive e.g. standing behind them if they decided to climb up a higher climbing frame. In addition, if accomplish this, we should always praise them and uplift them as this will increase their self-esteem and self-confidence within themselves. If they were not able to succeed in something, we should always explain that it takes practice and encourage them not to give up. Sometimes anecdotal stories may help as this will prevent them from thinking that they are abnormal. 7 Understand the importance of e-safety for children and young people 7.1 Explain the risks and possible consequences for children and young people of being online and of using a mobile phone As technology is constantly evolving and advancing, E-Safety has become a much bigger concern, especially in schools. Many schools have guidelines in place for staff, pupils and parents and many schools require parents to sign an Internet Safety Agreement to indicate they have discussed E-safety with their children and that they agree with the schools internet policy. Most of the time, computers in schools will be set up in a way where inappropriate and unsuitable sites will be inaccessible to pupils. However, at home this may not be the case, therefore, children and parents alike need to know the risks of the online world. The ways of communicating with people has become vast over the generations, one of which is the use of social networking sites. Parents should stress the risk of Stranger Danger to their kids, especially if they are on a social networking site. They should be reminded that it is very easy for people to make up fake identities and try to befriend you, hence why you should not talk to people that you dont know online. In addition, social networking sites provides an open platform for predators to seek and exploit children and vulnerable people, therefore it is always important to keep your profiles private and speak to only friends you know personally and family. Moreover, parents should restrict their child posting pictures online as predators can use data of that image to extract a geographic location and make the person easily trackable. Parents should also note that their children should not overshare information about themselves, as this will ignite bad intentions in some people and cause the child to become a vulnerable target of abuse/exploitation. Another risk that children should be aware of is that fact that anything they post on social media is out there forever and cannot be taken back. They must ensure they do not post inappropriate content as this may cause problems for them in later life, as it may be accessed future employers, colleagues etc. Furthermore, with emailing there are also further risks. Children should be reminded that sometimes they may receive emails from unknown people, who may be sending inappropriate content or viruses. Children should not share their emails with people they do not know. The risks associated with buying things online is people committing identity theft or fraud so purchases should always be made from a genuine established website. Furthermore, if children own a mobile phone, especially one that may up to date, it is important to for them to know that showing it in public a lot can cause them to attract potential muggers. Parents should ideally give their children a slightly less up to date phone if the purpose of them having it is for communication purposes when walking to and from school. 7.2 Describe ways of reducing risk to children and young people from social networking internet use buying online using a mobile phone There are many ways children and parents can help to reduce risks when online. Children should avoid putting up personal information e.g . address, telephone numbers, photographs, email and they should always ensure that their online profiles are kept private. In addition, they should make sure that those whom are able to view their profile are friends that they know personally or family members. In addition, they should also avoid posting other information such as their leisurely activities and what school they go because predators can piece together different information to gain an insight into their personal life. Also, parents should ensure that if their child uses a social networking site, that the privacy settings are not open to all as this will allow anyone to access and view their profile. Unlike school computers which have been set with filters to block inappropriate content, parents should make sure their home computers are set up in such a way where children cannot access unsuitable content e.g. Use of Parental control settings, Child Safety Online Kitemark. In terms of emails, children should be reminded to only open emails from people that they know opening unknown emails can be dangerous as the contents are not known- it may contain a virus or an inappropriate image. If children are ever sent something hurtful, they should tell an adult immediately. When making online purchases, younger children may use their parents card information to make payment. They should preferably be supervised when doing so but also be reminded of possibilities of identity theft and that they should never save card information online as this can lead to fraud. Children should avoid using mobiles phones too much in public as having it on show too much can make them vulnerable to mugging and theft. In addition, they should be advised not to give out their number to strangers or people they hardly know. PAGE CACHE Insert qualification name Learner Achievement Log CACHE 2010 PAGE 1 The Children Act 1989 was introduced in England and Wales regarding the welfare of children, identifying the responsibility of parents and of those who work with children. The main aims are Achieving a balance between protecting children and the rights of parents to challenge state intervention. Encourage partnership between statutory authorities and parents. Restructure the framework of the courts, in particular with regard to family proceedings. Redefine the concept of parental responsibility Furthermore, The Every Child Matters guideline, which later became the Children Act 2004, came about following the death of Victoria Climbie. The main points are as follows There should be a much closer working relationship between agencies such as health professionals, schools and welfare services. There should be a central database containing records of all children and whether they are known to different services. There should be a children and families board, chaired by a senior government minister. Ofsted will set a framework which will monitor childrens services. There should be an independent childrens commissioner for England to protect children and young peoples rights. These recommendations became a legal requirement, hence improve child protection in the UK. The United Nations Convention on the Rights of the child (1989) is an international human rights treaty which sets out rights for all children (those under 18) to be treated equally and be entitled to. The right to services such as education and health care. The right to grow up in an environment of happiness, love and understanding. The right to develop their personalities, abilities and talents to their own potential. The right to special protection measures and assistance. Moreover, The Common Assessment Framework (CAF) is a way of finding out about a childs additional needs and how they can be met. It aims to identify childrens needs at an early stage and to provide a way of looking at a method of support which is appropriate for the child. Child protection has been replaced with the phrase safe-guarding. Safeguarding has been described as the range of ways in which adults and professionals working with the child need to act when managing child protection issues. These are ways which are designed to prevent risks of harm to the welfare of children and young people rather than react to them. Day to day work can include childcare practice, child protection, risk assessment, ensuring the voice of the child is heard and supporting children and young people who may be expressing concerns. In terms of childcare practice, this refers to all those who work in schools/nurseries and other early years settings. In order to work with children, the professional will need to be fully trained and CRB (Criminal Records Bereau) checked. Those working in childcare practice must adhere to safeguarding policies and procedures. Child protection is a responsibility of all those working with children. The professional must be aware of the schools policy of recording and reporting suspected abuse. In addition child protection records must be kept secure on site and records must be kept of what a pupil says as well as dates and times of any meetings. Also if a child voices a concern, the school must ensure that it is followed up and parents must be notified if photographs are to be taken of the children which are likely to be used or seen outside the school premises to comply with child protection purposes. Risk assessments are assessments which need to be carried out prior to any activities where children or young people are undertaking an activity which has potential to cause harm e.g. school trip or perhaps equipment/areas that will be used that may cause harm. The assessment highlights how to avoid the risk and procedures to carry out if a child/young person becomes affected by that risk. In cases of child protection all agencies concerned will need to ensure that the voice of the child is considered. Avocacy services e.g. the National Youth Advocacy Service should be provided in order to support the child or young person during a time which will be difficult for them. When supporting a child who is expressing their concerns, the adults initial response should be to always listen carefully. After reassuring the child and explaining what action will be taken, it is important not to press for further information and to also not tell the child that the information will remain confidential. This is because the child may need to talk to other adults about what has happened. According to the LSCB Regulations 2006, serious case reviews are carried out in circumstances where a child has died due to known or suspected abuse or neglect. Reviews may also be carried out when a child has been seriously harmed or has suffered life-threatening injuries. The reason why serious case reviews are carried out are to allow agencies to discuss the case together and to determine lessons to be learned. It is also carried out to review the way in which professionals have worked together and how they can make improvements for the future. Following the review, a report is then written which will then be made public so that recommendations are known. 9r Y, 4IsNXp
xpop, Yu),[email protected](2O4kLEzqO2POuz_gx7svnB2,E3p9GQd H IjZ29LZ15xl.([email protected]@[email protected] O5YYS.7bdn671. tn/w/t6PssL.JiN AI)t2Lmx([email protected] m2DBAR4 wnaQ W0xBdT/.3-FbYLKK6HhfPQh)GBms_CZys [email protected])h7JicFS.NP eI [email protected] NC([email protected])t9M4WP5flk_X-CwTB Y, AoYezxTVOlp /gTpJ EG, AozAryerb/Ch,Eoo. 6Q
bSources SelectedStyleAPA.XSL StyleNameAPA Fifth Edition xmlnsbhttp//schemas.openxmlformats.org/officeDocument/2006/bibliography xmlnshttp//schemas.openxmlformats.org/officeDocument/2006/bibliography/bSources