Translation study appeared as an independent course of academic study more than 50 years

Translation study appeared as an independent course of academic study more than 50 years. But there is a relation between this course and close disciplines such as linguistics, semiotics, comparative literature and cultural studies, and anthropology. This relation with other fields caused progress in the translation studies. These progress in the translation studies enabled studies on universals of translation. The search for universals began in the mid-1990s drawing from developments in translation studies and the emergence of corpus linguistics in the previous decades. Among the first features to be hypothesized as universals of translation were explicitation , implification and normalization