The ruthless progress of technology means that the barriers to access for those wishing to entrust violent behavior are declining. Radical groups like Al Qaeda and ISIS use the Internet and social media in many process strategies as a new jihadist settings trend of the modern terrorist iconography such as psychological (attack on emotional) warfare, publicity and propaganda, fund raising, recruitment and information sharing and planning. The Internet specifically social media platforms like Facebook and Twitter are presented as a new, cheap and easy-to-integrate medium that adds to the communication strategies. (Behnke, 2010) These Islamic radical groups use online media as tools to disseminate its multidimensional propaganda. By using this new communication technology it has attracted a global network of supporters and at the same time circulates its violent extremist messages worldwide. Other than that, this global jihadist strategically recruiting members worldwide by using Internet sites, social media online magazines, and mostly social media tools such as Facebook, Twitter, Instagram and YouTube. Even though the removal of extremist content in the Internet is actively running yet all the censorship is ineffective due to speedy technology advancement.
Social media is the trendiest medium for youth to be in touch with each other today. It is up-to-date, interactive, and is populated by a very young age and most of them are sill naïve. It kept rising in fame as they provided not one-way but two-way communication and they also differed from the conventional media in their “interactivity, reach, frequency, usability, and immediacy”. Their user-friendly, free, reliable, and hierarchy-less environment helped in creation of online communities where the terrorists can “virtually knock on the doors” of their recruiter.This terrorist group is rapidly strategically recruiting young men and women worldwide by using social media platforms including Facebook, Twitter, Instagram and many more.
Even though many governments sponsored counter-extremist effort in suppressing IS ideology and propaganda from spreading on and offline; however with enhancement of both technology and media it is hard to control the flow of information on the internet nowadays. The development of violent related expression rising approximately some of offline events that stands out: the crucifixions in Raqqa, the invasion of Mosul and Tikrit by ISIS (Saddem Hussein’s hometown, a place of symbolic importance), the invasion of Sinjar (Yazidi town) and the taking over of the Shaer field. (Benjamin, 2008)
ISIS for example, a highly booming movement has seen as successful propaganda as all IS members is an active user of Twitter and other social media in worldwide. (J.M Berger, 2015) ISIS group targeted youth or young adult to recruit new members and how this campaign accomplishment is because the medium that they use is a trendy medium for the youth to communicate today. Social media also known as trendy channels, an interactive medium that is easy, and populated by young demographic. In sum, radical groups like Daesh use the Internet especially social media in many process strategies: psychological warfare, advertising and propaganda, fund raising, enrollment of new members and information sharing and planning. Iconography is a new jihadist settings trend of the modern global terrorist.
Among all elements of Fourth Generation Warfare, the big data of digital asymmetrical environment (DAE) is the core. Big data that also known as a large and complex of datasets is difficult to work using standards statistical software. The current trends of communication technology like social media can be classified as DAE. Mobile communication or digital increasing has made to become more linked, networked and traceable that leads to high accessibility of large scale of datasets. Blog website, micro blog, and online forums offer sharing information method and all the data can be composed and joined with the online data. In general, digital asymmetrical environment is an unconventional warfare that becoming vital as battle in physical setting is now changed into psychological and mentally. The settings now has changed from the symmetrical superpower war to attacking weak parties in technical knowledge of computing and networking system through hackers and more organized crime. People preferences in this new information system of social media are complicated yet very interesting. Social media become more important as it started to become references in performing coverage by citizen and amateur journalist rather than professional journalism in mainstream media. The rise of social media put social media in the fifth estate that allows the users to discuss and express their feelings and thoughts on some occasion make it more important unlike some other mainstream media. The capabilities of social media from spread pictures, posts, and video can affect peoples’ lives. With this information processing capability would again, accommodating in decision making of the user.
Even though since 2016 above, there has been a constant diminishing in IS cyber propaganda activity in term of quantity as well as quantity. Many online publications went of circulation and most of social media accounts of avid supporters have significantly lost their followers. Due to strict regulation measures, quite a number of blogs, social media accounts and website have ceased their production. This has seen as one of positive development as it impedes recruitment and jihadist activities.