THE ASSESSMENT OF WATER AND AVAILABLE WATER RESOURCES FOR ABBOTTABAD CITY, KPK, PAKISTAN Dr. Mujahid Khan, Syed Adnan Shah, Ikramullah Qayyum, Ashar IqbalUniversity of Engineering and Technology Peshawar, KP, Pakistan contact email: [email protected] life of the inhabitants of the globe is greatly dependant on water. Providing palatable water to communities is of fir most interest.
We studied and analysed a city Abbottabad where the results show that the suburbs of Abbottabad are water scarce. A village named Sheikh-ul-bandi is taken as the model and after applying the Data on the model it is calculated that the Population in 2035 will be 38364 persons and shortage of water will approximately 465280 gallons that will be required to mitigate in 2035. By adopting the rain water harvesting system, it is calculated that water can easily be available to 9718 persons till 2035.
The Available water in 2035 from the rain water will be 194,524.07, gallons while the remaining shortage can be fulfilled by the gravity system or by installing 2 tube wells in that village. Key words: water resources, shortfall of water, curve number, water requirements, Population, Area, runoffIntroduction: Water is the firmest need of the humans for surviving on this planet Earth.
As Earth is covered by water more than the dry land but still there are certain countries where there is shortage of water. The shortage of water occurs mainly because of over population. Due to uncontrolled population water is diminishing day by day specially in under developed countries like Pakistan. The population of Pakistan is approximately 20 crores. Many of the cities of Pakistan are self-sufficient for water but still there are some cities that could not meet the required needs of people regarding water. Abbottabad is one of the well-developed and most beautiful cities of Pakistan but there is shortage of water that should be mitigating to meet the needs of people.
Different government departments are working for the provision of adequate supply of water to the people of Abbottabad like Public Health Engineering Department and irrigation department etc. They have managed well the available water resources and utilizes them in a systemic way to provide palatable water to the community for drinking purposes. But still there is some shortage of water that is needed to meet the requirement. According to data collected by the Public Health Engineering Department the total water demand of water in whole Abbottabad city was 357litres/second = 12.60 cusecs (6.8mMGD). And the Existing well capacity was 140litres/second = 4.
94 cusecs (2.6MGD). The shortfall was 217 liters/second = 7.66 cusecs (4.
16MGD). The short fall is mitigated 60% by the gravity system and 40 % by the tube well. But according to Public Health Engineering Department the tube well system is totally collapsed and along with that 140 liters/second shortfall is that which is not mitigated by the either systems or which is not taken into account.Although maximum of population of Abbottabad is facilitated by the gravity system to convey water to the inhabitants of Abbottabad but still there is some sort of problems or there is shortage of water than demanded. Shortage is in the sense that although water is very much sufficient in the ground but is not fully utilized.
The concerned departments have made their try to put all the resources to get most of the benefit from the water but still there is something by which this facility is utilized to maximum extent. There is 140 liters/second shortfall that is not mitigated yet. Although maximum population of the Abbottabad is facilitated by the gravity system that is installed by JICA. But keeping in mind the shortfall there is a need of study or research to cope the required demand. By considering this demand in this research all the previous data will be analyzed and on the basis of which ultimate solution to the problem will be given.
Rainfall harvesting system with all its parameters will be studied and then will be scrutinized and analyzed on the basis of which the end results will be provided.Literature Review: Many researchers have performed their study on adopting innovative systems to cope the demand of water supply to the community. The previous research work in literature mainly focuses on the gravity system, pumping system and rainwater harvesting system. A detailed and inclusive literature review on classical methods of water supply system is given below. Boers and Ben-Asher, (1982) reviewed the literature on the potential application of rain water harvesting for crop production. About 170 articles were published in between 1970 and 1980 and these articles emphasize on to increase the awareness for rain water harvesting and a recognition of its potential. Based on three common characteristics of it, the definition of rainwater is presented: small scale operation, local water and semi-arid climate.
Christopher Despines, et. al. (1990) has assessed the rainwater quality from rainwater harvesting systems in Ontario, Canada. The generated results pointed out that: with the change of environmental conditions the quality can be vary expectedly, through the selection of storage material, adequate catchment and application of post cistern treatment, the RHW system can be of high quality. Dieter Prinz (1994) has corelated the past and future water harvesting and according to him, the back bone of agriculture in semi-arid and arid zones in the past was water harvesting. After decline, during the past decades, new interests have gained by it.
The link between soil and water conservation, rainfed agriculture and irrigated agriculture will be its future role. It will alleviate slightly the tension on draught-ridden farmers and communities. Deep Narayan, et. al. (2003) reviewed and collected the data about previous paleoclimatical evidence for climate change during the Holocene, and to test the climate change rain water harvest hypothesis, they compared this data with historical and archaeological records.
The results revealed that in response to sudden climate fluctuation, like draught and aridity, there is correlation among human activities for the construction of rain water harvesting structures across whole region. The adaptation of historical communities to climatical fluctuations may lead the modern societies to future climate change that are dependent on water resources, natural system management and food production. Jim Wright1, et.
al. (2004) discussed the reason of microbial contamination that is present in drinking water between the source and point of use in developing countries. They also discussed the process of accessing these microbial contaminants. Enedir ghisi. (2005) studied the capability of saving potable drinking water through the rain water in residential estates of brazil and he concluded that on the dependency of geographic location this ranges from 48% to 100%.
Jean-marc Mwenge Kahinda, et. al. (2007) discussed that one of the targets of 7th Millennium Development Goals (MDGs), is the amount of people who are living without accessing to safe potable drinking water and adequate sanitation system. In south Africa about 9.7 million (20%) people do not have access to potable safe drinking water and 16 million (33%) do not have proper sanitation system. Domestic rain water harvesting system (DRWHS) provides water directly to households enables them to do small productive activities.
Through this system water can easily be supplied to the rural and pre-urban areas where there is problem of installing conventional technical water supply system. Olanike Olowoiya, et. al. (2009) assessed the capability of rain water harvesting system. They concluded that excess rainfall normally occurs in September and October and if adequate storage is available then this stored water is sufficient to supplement the shortfall in dry months. The highest capability of water saving is in June and September which is the two rainfall peak periods in south Nigeria. Che-Ani A.
I, et. al. (2009) discussed the implementation of rain water harvesting system in Malaysia to avoid water crisis in future. PHED et. Al. (2015) discussed that In Abbottabad that is our concerned area the gravity system installed by the Japan International Cooperation Association cope just 60% of the total demand while remaining 40% is cope with the help of tube well system.
Along with this Still there is 140 l/s deficiency which must be mitigated yet. Materials and Methods: Precipitation Data:We collected data from Regional Meteorological Center, Peshawar We have collected ten years monthly storm data. From this we compute average storm depth.Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec2008 256 211 163 40 36 77 1062009 72 100 87 189 35 78 153 177 49 23 35 82010 20 215 53 51 83 60 389 135 120 16 2 242011 25 232 137 128 20 82 195.
2 257 16.1 64.6 16 92012 26 60 108 208.3 0 101.
4 0 291.1 0 33.1 2013 7 183 2014 2015 103 175.4 201.
1 87.6 100.2 343.5 146.6 95 187 50.
5 45.22016 43.5 0 172.
5 65.2 40.2 117.3 347.5 105.2 78 73 0 82017 147.6 44.
1 63.5 141.7 23.
05 80.05 246.51 236.04 72.01 2 30 0Table 3.1: Ten Years Rainfall Data for Abbottabad City (All values are in ‘mm’)Population of Sheikh-ul-bandiWe collected data from the Public Health Engineering Department, Abbottabad of the total population of Sheikh-ul-bandi which is shown in the following table.Number of houses in year 2015 Population in 2015 @ 7 person per house Population in 2025 @ 3% increased.
Population in 2035 @ 3% increased.3243 22701 29511 38364Table 3.2: PopulationThe calculated and the average area of the model is 3243 Houses, by 7 persons per house. 3.
3 Area Calculation Our prototype is Abbottabad City. Calculation for whole Abbottabad City is difficult so we consider Sheikh-ul-bandi as our Model for Abbottabad City. 3.3.
1 Locating Sheikh-ul-bandiFirst, we located the model in Google earth by typing the name of the place in the search option. And then we specified its boundaries with the help of boundary tool in google Earth. And for the measurement of area in Google Earth we used Ruler tool. Figure SEQ Figure * ARABIC 1 : The Aerial image of sheikh-ul-Bandi3.3.2 Total Area of Sheikh-ul-bandiIn Google Earth, there is an option Ruler tool for finding the area of any cross section, we click that option in order to find the total area, adjusting area’s unit to km².Ruler 8: ScaleBy selecting polygon in option and draw a line exactly on the boundary line it gives value 1.
12km²Figure SEQ Figure * ARABIC 2 : Calculation of AreaFor verification putting the values in Earth point (www.earthpoint.us/Shapes.aspx) so it also gives the same value.
Figure SEQ Figure * ARABIC 3 : Verification of values3.3.3 Types of Areas or Land in UseThere are two Types of Area in our proposed model Constructed LandIt include constructed area like streets, roads, homes, houses, small shops and plazas.
This type of buildings is made up of mud, brick masonry, confined masonry and RCC etc. So, its area is calculating by selecting polygon option in the Ruler tool and selecting all constructed area as shown in the figureFigure SEQ Figure * ARABIC 4: Detailed Area calculationUnconstructed LandIn unconstructed land Sheikh-ul-bandi include two types of land i.e.
agricultural Land (cultivated and uncultivated land) and Barrel Land. From the total area subtracting constructed area we get the unconstructed area that is 0.44km².
SCS-CN Methodfor the estimation of runoff volume soil conservation services has developed a method known as SCS curve numbers method. For calculating the runoff for small or medium sized watershed this method is widely used. Rainfall amount and curve number are the essential requirements for this method. The basic concept is that the ratio of direct runoff to rainfall minus initial abstraction is equal to the ratio of actual retention of rainfall to the potential maximum retention (S). The equation that is used for calculating depth of direct runoff by SCS from storm rainfall is: Q= (P-Ia)2/ (P-Ia+S) …………… (1)where P shows precipitation in millimeters Q= runoff in millimeters and S is potential maximum retention in millimetersIa is initial abstraction that is equal to Ia= 0.
2Snow using equation (1) and putting value of Ia gives us Q= (P-0.2S) ² / (P+0.8S) (P; 0.2S)………………………… (2)For the condition of Pakistan, the potential maximum retention is given by,S= (25400/CN) -254…………. (3) here CN is dimensionless number ranging from 0-100 and S is in mm. Curve Number (CN)The empirical parameters which are used to predict the direct runoff is runoff curve number. It usually ranges from 0 to 100.
For higher runoff potential the value of CN will be high and for lower runoff potential this value will be low. The parameters on which the CN is based are hydrological soil group, land use/land cover, and hydrological condition. Mishra has published a conversion table, which can be used for the conversion of CN value in different antecedent moisture condition. The equation that is used for different land use and hydrological soil condition is: ………………… (4)Where, CN represents composite curve number Ai= area of each curve number.Runoff can be calculated by calculating the curve number and then it can be further use for the runoff Volume. Results and AnalysisWater RequirementsBefore going to other calculation we must calculate that how much population is in the community and their average water use per day to know the exact amount of water we need for the community.
So, for sheikh-ul-bandi their anticipated population is 38364 Persons per day demand is 20 GPCD which is 767280 gallons for year 2035 as shown below in table no. 4.1.
Year Population Water Requirement @ 20 Gallon per day. Discharge available from an existing Tube well (3 No’s) with 12 hours pump @ 8000 Gallons per hour Water available from Gravity Flow Balance Water Requirement2015 22701 454020 192000 110000 1520202025 29511 590220 192000 110000 2882202035 38364 767280 192000 110000 465280 Table 4.1: Water Requirements Land Use and Land Cover (LULC):The categorization of Sheikh-ul-bandi is done in three LULC classes, that are given in the Table 4.
2.1. Homes and Houses2.Streets and Roads3. Agricultural landTable 4.2: Land UseLand use/Land cover Area(Km²) Area (%)Homes and Houses 0.
578 51.61Streets and roads 0.102 9.11Agricultural Land 0.
44 39.29Total 1.12 100Calculation of Curve NumberFor each classified area the soil types are determined and then converted them into hydrological soil groups A, B, C and D. On the basis of their infiltration capacity of soil, different type of areas is calculated and then assigned curve number to each area, based on the standard SCS curve number. Table 4.3: Curve NumberLand use/Land cover Soil Group CN Area(Km²) Area*CNHomes and Houses D 98 0.
3179 31.1542C 79 0.1156 9.1324B 68 0.1445 9.
826Streets and roads D 98 0.0459 4.4982C 89 0.0306 2.7234B 82 0.0255 2.
091Agricultural Land A 62 0.176 10.912C 74 0.264 19.536Total 1.12 89.
87324.3.1 Composite CN numberFrom table no: 4.
3 and Using the equation (4) to calculate the composite CN valuePutting values CN=89.8732/1.12CN =80.24= 80(approx.)4.
4 Run Off S=(25400/CN)-254 Where S= Potential max: retentionS= (25400/80)-254S= 63.5Runoff = (P-0.2 S) ²/(P+0.8S) = (357-0.2*63.5)²/(357+0.
8*63.5)= 290.68mm4.5. Run off VolumeRunoff Volume = runoff * Area = 290.68mm*1.12km = .
290m*1120000m²= 325562m³4.6 CalculationsAfter calculations we came to know that for 2018, we can fulfil the demand of the area by the rain water harvesting system ,the calculations are as under.The Shortage in 2015= 152020 gallonsThe rain water in 2018 = 38.9lit/capita/day = 38.9/4.
84 c/d = 8.56g/c/d = 194508 gallonsThis shows that availability is greater than demand so it can fulfil our need.4.7 Future Demand and Availability For 2025, the requirement = 288220 gallons and after calculations like we did above it shows that availability is less than demand but it was a minor difference according to PHED. In 2025, it came that availability is 194356 gallons, while a big difference will happen in 2035 in which the demand is 465280 gallons while availability is 194356 gallons. Conclusions:From this value we concluded that along with rain water if we install 2 tube wells then the problem can be solved. But by sticking to rain water, we can say that after all calculations and comparison we can serve 9718 persons to meet their water demand. For that we have recommended to install water reservoirs where water from rain and runoff will be collected and then after purification through the filtration plant can be supplied to the community.REFERENCES Boers, Th.M. and Ben-Asher, J., 1982. ” A review of rainwater harvesting. Agric. Water Manage”. from International Institute for Land Reclamation and Improvement, ILRI, P.O. Box 45, 6700 AA, Wageningen (The Netherlands) 2 Jacob Blaustein Institute for Desert Research, Sede Boqer Campus (Israel).Christopher Despins et al. | Assessment of rainwater quality in Ontario, Canada. in Journal of Water Supply: Research and Technology—AQUA | 58.2 | 2009Dieter Prinz (1994) “water harvesting – past and future” Universität Karlsruhe (TH) Institut für Wasserbau und Kulturtechnik 76128 Karlsruhe.Deep Narayan, et. al. (2003) “Rainwater harvesting as an adaptation to climate change” *Indian Institute of Forest Management, Bhopal 462 003, India and Forest Department, Van Bhawan, Tilak Marg, Jaipur 302 005, India, Department of Geology and Geophysics, Indian Institute of Technology, Kharagpur 721 302, India NOAA Paleoclimatology Program and University of Colorado, Boulder, CO 80303, USA.Jim Wright1, et. al. (2004) “Household drinking water in developing countries: a systematic review of microbiological contamination between source and point-of-use” Water and Environmental Management Research Centre, University of Bristol, Bristol, UK and Department of Epidemiology and Public Health Medicine, Royal College of Surgeons in Ireland, Dublin, Ireland.Enedir ghisi.(2005) “Potential for potable water savings by using rainwater in the residential sector of Brazil” Department of Civil Engineering, Laboratory of Energy Efficiency in Buildings, Federal University of Santa Catarina, Floriano´polis-SC, 88040-900, Brazil. Jean-marc Mwenge Kahinda, et. al. (2007) “Domestic rainwater harvesting to improve watersupply in rural South Africa” School of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Private Bag X3, Wits 2050, Johannesburg, South Africa b Source Strategic Focus (Pty) Ltd., P.O. Box 2857, Pretoria 0001, Pretoria, South Africa.Olanike Olowoiya, et. al. (2009) “Assessing the Potential for Rainwater Harvesting” Department of Bioresources Engineering, Faculty of Agricultural and Environmental Sciences, McGill University, Montreal, QC, Canada. And Department of Agricultural Engineering, Faculty of Technology, Obafemi Awolowo University, Ile-Ife, Nigeria.Che-Ani A.I, et. al.(2009) “Rainwater Harvesting as an Alternative Water Supply in the Future” European Journal of Scientific Research ISSN 1450-216X Vol.34 No.1 (2009), pp.132-140 © EuroJournals Publishing, Inc. 2009 http://www.eurojournals.com/ejsr.htm.Sub Engineer Shahid et.al. (2015) “Final PC-1 for Rehabilitation of Gravity Flow Water Supply Scheme Abbottabad 29-07-2015” Public health engineering department Abbottabad. Joy Rajbanshi,(2016) “Estimation of Runoff Depth and Volume Using NRCS-CN Method in Konar Catchment (Jharkhand, India)” University of Calcutta, kolkata, West Bengal, India. In Journal of Civil & Environmental Engineering. S. Satheeshkumar et. al.(2017) “Rainfall–runoff estimation using SCS–CN and GIS approach in the Pappiredipatti watershed of the Vaniyar sub basin, South India” . Hydrogeology Laboratory, Department of Geology, Periyar University, Salem, India United States Department of Agriculture (1986). “Runoff curve number” Natural Resources Conservation Service, Conservation Engineering Division. Hawkins, R.H.; Jiang, R.; Woodward, D.E.; Hjelmfelt, A.T.; Van Mullem, J.A. (2002). “Runoff Curve Number Method: Examination of the Initial Abstraction Ratio”. Proceedings of the Second Federal Interagency Hydrologic Modeling Conference, Las Vegas, Nevada. Ward, Andy D.; Trimble, Stanley W. (2004). Environmental Hydrology. Boca Raton, Florida Amin, M T. (2009). Roof-harvested rainwater for potable purposes: Application of solar Collector disinfection (soco-dis). Water research, 43(20), 5225.Google Earth. (2011). Tegucigalpa. Retrieved from www.earth.google.com.Anderson, R. (2005) Water conservation and water infrastructure discussed in Chicago, in Conference of Mayors Urban Water Council 2005, Chicago, IL, USA.