ST

ST. AUGUSTINE UNIVERSITY OF TANZANIA
Faculty of Education

The Roles of School Heads as Human Resource Managers in Enhancing Teachers’ Job Performance in Public Secondary Schools in Kwimba District

Brown Ngulo
MEMP 56152

A Dissertation Submitted to the Faculty of Education in Partial Fulfillment of Requirement for the Degree of Master of Education Management and Planning

June, 2018

STUDENT’S DECLARATION
This Dissertation is my original work and has not been presented and will not be presented to any other university for a similar or any other award.

Signature……………………….

Date…………………….. …..
Ngulo Brown
Reg.No. MEMP 56152

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SUPERVISOR’S CERTIFICATION
This dissertation has been submitted for examination with my approval as University supervisor.

Name of the Supervisor Sr. Dr. Demetria Mkulu (PhD)

Signature………………

Date…………………….

DEDICATION
This work is dedicated to my beloved late parents Peter Ngulo and Ester Mpagike, my family members Pili Ngulo, William Ngulo, Tumaini Ngulo, Bryson Ngulo, Emmanuel Ngulo, Memory Ngulo and Happy Ngulo as well as all my friends for their support.

ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS
There is nothing wonderful and good when you succeed to arrive at the destination of any program. First of all I would like to thank the Almighty God who blessed me to accomplish my studies throughout my two academic years.
Special thanks should also go to my supervisor Sr. Dr. Demetria Mkulu for her close supervision and enormous sacrifice of time to guide me from the beginning of the research up to the end.
I also extend my thanks to St. Augustine University of Tanzania for creating a conducive learning environment for my studies. My heartfelt gratitude should go to the Mwanza Regional Administrative Secretary, Kwimba District Administrative Secretary and all heads of ten public secondary schools and teachers for the good cooperation which they showed to me during data collection. I acknowledge the support of all my friends, Zawadi Mlingi, Elizaberth Francis, Eveline Mduma, Carini Mng’ong’o, Hilary Majimbe, Boma Mgema, Luffinus Mwanyika, Gilbert Tairo, Denice Vernant, just to mention few.

COPYRIGHT
This dissertation is a copyright material and should not be reproduced by any means whatsoever. In whole or part without prior permission of the author or St. Augustine University of Tanzania.
© Brown Ngulo 2018
All rights reserved

ABSTRACT
This study assessed the roles of the school heads as human resource managers in enhancing teachers’ job performance in public secondary schools in Kwimba District. It specifically determined teachers’ perceptions on the roles of the school heads as human resource managers. Also, the study investigated the strategies to be used by the school heads as human resource managers to improve teachers’ job performance. The study employed mixed research approach and convergent parallel design. One hundred (100) respondents were involved in this study. They included, teachers and school heads. Questionnaires and interviews were used to collect data. The collected quantitative data were coded and analyzed by using SPSS version 20 and presented by using descriptive statistics like tables, frequencies and percentages. Qualitative data were analyzed based on themes. The findings indicated that, roles such as teaching supervision, planning and placement of teachers and providing guidance and counseling encouraging were more practiced by school heads. Also, teachers perceived that, when team work, safe working environment and teaching supervision were promoted by school heads would enhance job performance. The respondents proposed that, in order to enhance teachers’ job performance, the school heads should provide motivation, involve teachers in decision making and maintain proper communication. The study recommends that, the government is required to increase financial budget to the public secondary schools, to provide seminars and special trainings to the school heads about management skills and lastly is that politics should be put aside from schools matters. By so doing, school heads as human resource managers will be able to play their roles effectively and efficiently towards enhancing teachers’ job performance.
TABLE OF CONTENTS

Declaration i
Supervisor’s Certification ii
Dedication iii
Copyright v
Abstract vi
Table of Contents vii
List of Figure Error! Bookmark not defined.
List of Tables xi
List of Tables xii
List of Accronyms/Abbreviations xiii

CHAPTER ONE: INTRODUCTION 1
1.1 Introduction 1
1.2 Background of the Study 1
1.3 Statement of the Problem 3
1.4 Research Objective 4
1.4.1 General Objective 4
1.4.2 Specific Objectives 4
1.5 Research Questions 5
1.6 Significance of the Study 5
1.7 The Scope of the Study 6
1.8 Theoretical Framework 6
1.9 Conceptual Framework 8
1.10 Definition of the Key Terms 9

CHAPTER TWO: LITERATURE REVIEW 10
2.1 Introduction 10
2.2 Theoretical Literature Review 10
2.3 Empirical Literature Review 12
2.3.1 The Roles of School Heads as Human Resource Managers in Enhancing Teachers’ Job Performance 12
2.3.2 Teachers Perception on the Roles of the School Heads as Human Resource Managers in Enhancing Teachers’ Job Performance 14
2.3.3 The Extent to Which School Heads’ Roles as Human Resource Managers Enhance Teachers’ Job Performance 16
2.3.4 Strategies to be used by the School Heads as Human Resource Manager to Improve Teachers’ Job Performance 18
2.4 The Knowledge Gap of the Reviewed Literature 20

CHAPTER THREE: RESEARCH METHODOLOGY 22
3.1Introduction 22
3.2 The Research Approach 22
3.3 Research Design 23
3.4 Study Area and Rationale 23
3.5 Target Population 24
3.6 Sample Size and Sampling Procedures 24
3.6.1 Sample Size 24
3.6.2 Sampling Procedures 25
3.7 Methods of Collecting Data 26
3.7.1 Questionnaire 26
3.7.2 Interviews Guide 27
3.8 Pilot Study, Validity and Reliability of the Instruments 28
3.8.1 Pilot Study 28
3.8.2 Validity of the Instruments 28
3.8.3 Reliability of the Instruments 29
3.9 Data Collection Procedure 29
3.11 Ethical Consideration 30

CHAPTER FOUR: PRESENTATION OF FINDINGS 32
4.1 Introduction 32
4.2 Participants’ Demographic Information 32
4.3 The Roles of School Heads as Human Resource Managers in Enhancing Teachers’ Job Performance 35
4.5 Teachers Perception on the Roles of School Heads as Human Resource Managers in Enhancing Teachers’ Job Performance 42
4.6 The Extent to which School Heads Play the Roles as Human Resource Managers in Enhancing Teachers’ Job Performance 46
4.7 Strategies Used by the School Heads as Human Resource Managers in Improving Teachers’ Job Performance 49

CHAPTER FIVE: SUMMARY, DISCUSSION, CONCLUSIONS, AND RECOMMENDATIONS 55
5.1 Introduction 55
5.2 Summary of the Findings 55
5.3 Discussion and Conclusion of the Research Study 58
5.3.1 Roles of the School Heads as Human Resource Managers in Enhancing Teachers’ Performance 58
5.3.2 2 Teachers’ Perception on the Roles of the School Heads as Human Resource Managers in Enhancing Teachers’ Job Performance 60
5.2.3 The Extent to which School Heads Play the Roles as Human Resource Managers in Enhancing Teachers’ Job Performance 61
5.3.4 Strategies Used by the School Heads as Human Resource Managers in Improving Teachers’ Job Performance 62
5.4 Recommendations 64
5.5 Suggestions for Further Studies 65
REFERENCES 66

APPENDICES 71
APPENDEX 1: Questionnaire for Public Secondary Teachers 71
APPENDIX II: Interview Guide for the Head of Schools 75
APPENDIX III: Consentform 76
APPENDEX IV: Time Schedule 77
APPENDIX V: Budget 78
APPENDIX VI: Permission for Masters’ Students to Access from Your Institutions 79
APPENDIX VII: Research Permission from Regional Administrative Secretary 80
APPENDIX VIII: Kibali cha Kufanya Utafiti Mwl. Brown Ngulo 81

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LIST OF TABLES
Table 2. Participants’ Demographic Information 33
Table 3. Roles of school heads as human resource managers 36
Table 4. Teachers’ Perception on the Roles Played by the School Head as Human Resource Managers 43
Table 5. Show the Extent to Which School Heads as Human Resource Managers Play Their Roles 47
Table 6. Show strategies Used by the School Heads as Human Resource Managers in Enhancing Teachers’ Job Performance 50

LIST OF FIGURE
Figure 1: Conceptual Framework…………………………………………………………8

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LIST OF ACCRONYMS/ABBREVIATIONS
DEO District Education Officer
MEMP Master of Education Management and Planning
RAS Regional Administrative Secretary
SEDP Secondary Education Development Programme
SPSS Statistical Package for Social Sciences
SMT School Management Team
TSC Teachers Service Commission

CHAPTER ONE
INTRODUCTION
1.1 Introduction
The main objective of this study was to assess the roles of school heads as human resource managers in enhancing teachers’ job performance in public secondary schools. This chapter presents background of the study, statement of the problem, research objectives, research questions, significance of the study, scope of the study and conceptual framework. Finally, the chapter ends up with definitions of the key terms.
1.2 Background of the Study
School heads are pillars of the schools, thus they are entitled to play various roles including managing human resource in the school setting. Itika (2011) viewed human resource management as a discipline and practice in the management of people in an organization has evolved and developed into different areas. The experience shows that, human resource management began to be used in the business firm. Additionally, Rotich (2015) conceptualized that, human resource management is a product of human relations movement of the early 20th century when researchers began documenting ways of creating business value through the strategic management of the work force. In relation to that, human resource management is concerned with effective and efficient management and utilization of employees in an organization towards the achievement of the intended goals.
As the time went on human resource management started to be used in education arena where by school heads are considered as human resource managers who are responsible for enhancing teachers’ job performance in school level. “The purpose of human resource management in education is to develop the workers and to contribute to goal achievement” (Omebe, 2014, p. 28). That means school heads as human resource managers are in charge of all activities taking place in their schools like encouraging teachers to develop their career and develop competence, creating conducive teaching environment that enhances better job performance. “Human resource managers develop, reward and motivate staff” (Cunningham, 2016, p. 4). That is to say school heads as human resource managers’ roles help to increase teachers’ morale through reward and motivation, knowledge and skills through training. “Traditionally in Botswana schools, like in many developing countries the school heads influence the whole running of the school” (Isaiah & Isaiah, 2014, p. 114). That means school heads plays all pivotal roles for running the school. Vaillant (2015) in the Global Monitoring Report asserted that, school principals spend a high proportion of their time on administrative tasks and activities such as monitoring and supervising human resources. In other words school heads as human resource are like the engine in the sense that are the ones who manage and control all resources including human resources allocated by the government and other educational stakeholders for the school.
For many years Tanzanian government has been encouraging school heads as human resource managers to carry out their roles effectively and efficiently. For example, through SEDP II, the government insisted that, school heads are responsible for supervising the teaching program, ensuring high quality of teaching and learning, effective use of time for the entire school day and creating conducive teaching and learning environment (Manaseh, 2016, p. 32). This also in line with the speech addressed by Tanzania Prime Minister Kassim Majaliwa in February 2018 to the Ukerewe District executive director and heads of schools that heads of schools are responsible for supervising all employees in their schools who are teachers, guards, cooks and clerks. He further added that, heads of schools are responsible for reporting to the District executive director wherever there is mistake done by an employee in their schools. Apart from continuing improving the schools’ climate for teaching and learning process, the Tanzania government since 2016 started providing 200,000 Shillings per each month as a responsibility allowance to the school heads. Responsibility allowance for school heads is intended to enable them to carry out various roles for the better success of their schools. But in relation to this study it has also been identified that some school heads are not able carry out their roles effectively since they lack enough training, financial problems, poor support from the surrounding community and political interference. “Many principals did not possess the managerial skills for effective management of secondary schools for national transformation” (Ndidi, Obiageli, ; Peace, 2013, p.1). In Tanzanian context, school heads are appointed without considering the managerial skills and level of education. Despite the efforts made by the government to overcome the problem, many school heads in Tanzania are proving failure to play their roles effectively as human resource managers. Thus the researcher found that there was a need to conduct the study about the role of school heads as human resource managers in enhancing teachers’ job performance in public secondary schools in Kwimba District.
1.3 Statement of the Problem Many school heads as human resource managers are proving failure to carry out their roles effectively towards enhancing teachers’ job performance in public secondary schools with the claim that they are working in unfriendly environment. The school heads also lack training skills on how to manage the school and they have limited management skills that affect the daily running and academic performance of the schools. “Head teachers work under tremendous pressure due to tight management structure within their own institution contexts, financial constraints, parental pressure and communal conflicts” (Qutoshi ; Khaki as cited in Moos, 2013). Despite the efforts invested by the government of Tanzania to overcome the problem, yet many school heads as human resource managers still fail to carry out their roles effectively and efficiently so as to enhance teachers’ job performance in public secondary schools. In this regard, the current study focused to assess the roles played by schools heads as human resource managers in enhancing teachers’ job performance in public secondary schools in Kwimba District.
1.4 Research Objectives
1.4.1 General Objective
To assess the roles of school heads as human resource managers in enhancing teachers’ job performance in public secondary schools in Kwimba district.
1.4.2 Specific Objectives
i. To explore the roles of school heads as human resource managers in public secondary schools in Kwimba district.
ii. To determine the levels of teachers’ perceptions on the roles of school heads as human resource managers in enhancing teachers’ job performance in public secondary schools in Kwimba district.
iii. To examine the extent to which school heads’ roles as human resource managers enhance teachers’ job performance in public secondary schools in Kwimba district.
iv. To establish strategies used by the school heads as human resource manager in improving teachers’ job performance in public secondary schools in Kwimba district.
1.5 Research Questions
i. What are the roles played by the school heads as human resource managers in public secondary schools in Kwimba district?
ii. What are the levels of teachers’ perceptions on the roles of school heads as human resource managers in enhancing teachers’ job performance in public secondary schools in Kwimba district?
iii. To what extent do school heads’ roles as human resource managers enhance teachers’ job performance in public secondary schools in Kwimba district?
iv. What are the strategies used by the school heads as human resource managers to improve teachers’ job performance in public secondary schools in Kwimba district?
1.6 Significance of the Study
The findings of this study inform school heads as human resource managers, to carry out their roles effectively and efficiently by considering that school heads’ roles contribute to better performance of the school. The study addresses the Ministry of Education, Science and Technology, Ministry of President’s Office Regional Administration and Local Government which are policy makers and policy implementers and other education stakeholders to create favorable environment for the school heads to carry out their roles effectively and efficiently toward enhancing teachers’ job performance in public secondary schools. The government to increase motivation such as remuneration and other increments so that teachers may be committed to work. Students are in the position of performing better since teachers, school heads are in the position of being committed to work.
1.7 The Scope of the Study
It is impossible to conduct the study in the whole country and involving all population due to the scarcity of financial resources and time. For that case, this study was conducted in Kwimba District Mwanza region. The selected area represents other area of the country. The study involved all school heads and teachers in assessing the roles of the school heads as human resource managers in enhancing teachers’ job performance in ten public secondary schools. Also, the study deployed a mixed research approach and it was conducted in a period of one year, that is, from 2017 to 2018.
1.8 Theoretical Framework
This study was guided by the System theory. The theory was propounded by Ludwing Von Bertalanffy and William Ross Ashby between 1940 and 1970s. Meles, Peles and Poles (2010) argued that, system theory is a theoretical perspective that analyses a phenomenon seen as whole not a simply the sum as elementary parts. In connection to the current study we can say that, institutions like schools has their own system, therefore it is the responsibility of the school heads as human resource managers to carry out their roles effectively so as to ensure the achievement of school goals. Furthermore “System theory emphasizes the mutual interdependence of the parts” (Cornell & Jude, 2015, p. 1). In relation to the current study organizations like schools comprise various offices such as school head office/ second master or second mistress office, academic office and discipline office. These offices work in mutual interdependence, so the failure of one office may results to the failure of the whole system. So it is the responsibility of the school heads as human resource managers to ensure that all units/departments in their schools work together in order to ensure the success of their schools.
Not only that but also system theory treats organization as a system that can either be closed or open but most approach treats organization as open system. Von Bertalanffy conceptualized that if a system was going to be examined it had to be what he referred to as an open system. That means organization like schools are not self contained. Since organizations employ teachers from outside their boundary for teaching and later the schools as organization produce graduands to the community who are well skilled and knowledgeable and important for the development of the country. So school heads as human resource managers must play his/her important roles. School heads must encourage teamwork, develop teachers’ career, create safe working environment, teaching supervision and ensure discipline among teachers which may results into good performance of their schools.
Similarly to that, system theory enables to understand the function of each unit in the institution for example in school setting it enable stakeholders like teachers and students to understand the function and duties of each office/department, the theory help managers/ school heads to look at the organization in a broader perspectives. The theory enhances to recognize various parts of the organization and in particular the interrelations of the parts for example the coordination of central administration with its programs, supervisor with workers and lastly it helps to identify the problem that lies to an individual’s life within an organization. Apart from that, the theory fails to direct the workers socially to the specific intervention strategies and lastly is that in connection to the study, the theory helped the researcher to collect data and interpret the findings. The head of schools failed to put emphasizes on the importance of creating conducive working environment to teachers.
1.9 Conceptual Framework
Conceptual framework is defined as both a guide and ballast for empirical research, situating specific questions and strategies for exploring them within the wider universe of what is already known about a given topic or question (Ravitch & Riggan, 2012).
Independent Variables Dependent Variables

Figure 1: Conceptual Framework
Figure 1 shows how the roles of school heads as human resource managers such as encouraging team work, developing teachers career, creating safe working environment. Also teaching supervision and encouraging discipline among teachers may enhance teachers’ job performance on the area such as lesson preparation, classroom management, teaching by using teaching aids effectively and evaluation of teaching. Therefore these variables are interrelated that means if one variable mess up the whole system in school setting will not work.
1.10 Definitions of the Key Terms
Teachers’ job performance: refers to the responsibilities carried out by teachers in a certain period of time in an education institution so as to realize the intended goals.
Role: refers to the moral or legal functions, responsibilities and duties performed or to be performed by a person because of his/her position or status in a particular institution or any other organization.
School heads: these are teacher by professional who hold an executive authority of the school. Their greatest responsibility is to ensure good management of the school.
Human resource managers: refers to the individuals in an organization whose his or her responsibility is to manage all human resources in organization for the better achievement of organization goals. They are responsible for supervising workers, making performance appraisal to the workers and ensuring employee relation.
Public secondary schools: these are schools which are owned and controlled by the government. To the larger extent these schools financially are funded by the government

CHAPTER TWO
LITERATURE REVIEW
2.1 Introduction
This chapter presents theoretical literature review, empirical review, and knowledge gap of the reviewed literature.
2.2 Theoretical Literature Review
This study intended to assess the roles of school heads as human resource managers in enhancing teachers’ job performance in public secondary schools. The current study was guided by Human Relation Theory which is also known as behavioral management theory. In addition to that, human relation theory was propounded by Elton Mayo in the early 1920s during industrial revolution (Cole, 2004). Furthermore the theory was much supported by other humanistic scholar such as Mary Follett Parker in 1932 (Owens, 2004).
Human relation theory emphasizes on the need for a clear understanding of the importance of human attitudes, capacity and abilities in term of organization effectiveness. In relation to this study, school heads as human resource managers have the roles of creating positive attitudes and capacity building to their employees (teachers) so as to enhance commitment, job satisfaction and teachers’ retention for the benefit of the institution. Also, in relation to the current study through theoretical review it is found that “employees performed better when managers treated them in a positive manner” (Marcic and Daft, 2011, p.30). Furthermore, the theory assumes that all people behave in the same way and that organization could therefore be programmed to the single way of organizing. That means school heads as human resource managers have the roles of harmonizing teachers to work together as a team work in different school matters in order to achieve better performance.
As the time went on, other scholar emerged to support the human relation theory. In 1932, Mary Parker Follett found that management is a social process (Owens, 2004, p. 90). In relation to the current study school heads as human resource managers have the roles of ensuring good interaction between teachers in secondary schools so as to enhance work effectiveness. Managers who are school heads have to value teachers in schools which will enhance teachers’ commitment and great job performance.
Furthermore, the human relation theory has some cons. The theory ignores rules, procedures and principles that guide workers and also risk workers to be too social swayed by person emotion and opinion when making decision. However, the theory is very much relevant to the current study because “Human relation theory is central to organizational development approaches to the improvement of organization performance” (Argyris as cited in Austin, 2012, p. 24). It also encourages managers to create a sense of satisfaction among the employees and make them feel like they belonged to something bigger. Human relation theory encourages communication between manager and his/ her worker to be like a dialogue instead of unidirectional communication from the manager targeted at the work. Finally, human relation theory has potential to increase employees’ retention rate and productivity as employees feel more valued by the organization.
2.3 Concept review
This part involves a discussion on the concept review of teachers’ job performance.
2.3.1 Teachers’ Job Performance
According to (Duze, 2012 as cited in Oluwakemi and Olanrewaju, 2014) teachers’ job performance as the duties performed by a teacher at any given time in the school geared towards achieving both the daily school and classroom objectives and the entire set goals and objectives of education. That is to say, teachers job performance refers to the responsibilities carried out by teachers in the school organization so as to achieve the intended goals. Furthermore, Selamat and Samsu (2013) conceptualized teachers’ job performance is the way in which a teacher behaves in the process of teaching and it is known to be related to teachers’ effectiveness. They also added that, good performance of students depends upon effective teaching of their teachers. In this study teachers’ job performance is viewed as the responsibilities carried out by teachers in the school setting so as to obtain the expected school goals. The study looked on teachers’ job performance in the area like lesson preparation, classroom management, teaching by using teaching aids effectively and evaluation of teaching.
2.4 Empirical Literature Review
2.4.1 The Roles of School Heads as Human Resource Managers
Cruz, Villena, Navarro, Belecina and Garvida (2016) conducted the study on enhancing the managerial performance of schools heads in Cavite division in Philippine. The study employed mixed research approach and descriptive research design. In that matter the study revealed that the level of managerial performance of secondary school heads is very satisfactory in different areas of school management vision, mission and goals gained the highest grand mean while financial and budgeting management got the lowest grand mean. This implied that heads of schools put much concentration on schools development rather than budget management. That is to say financial management is still a challenge to many Philippines school heads. Therefore the study recommended that schools heads must establish school and community network and encouraging the active participation of all the stakeholders in planning, monitoring and evaluating the school progress. That means school principals should enhance proper relationship between schools and the community which surround the school and creating conducive environment for all educational stakeholders of Cavite division in philippine to have morale of participating on various school matters.
Furthermore, Qutoshi and Khaki (2014) carried out the study in Karachi, Pakistan on the role of principal in school improvement: A case study of Community-Based School. The study employed qualitative research approach. The study identified that roles of the head teacher is complex, daunting, mult-dimensional and multi layered. Head teacher perform her best to provide better education to the learners by improving teaching and learning environment but there are some disabling factors like lack of financial resources, teachers turnover and resource management. The findings indicated that head teachers should create conducive teaching and learning environment although to some extent are hampered by the scarcity of school resources for example human, financial and physical resources. The study recommended that head teacher need more focus on academic matters, there must be the improvement of salary structures and provision of incentives to the teachers and school management should encourage and support all teachers to upgrade their qualification and skills through professional networking. That means head teachers in Pakistani are required to put much effort and concentration on instruction supervision, enhancing teachers to work hard by providing reward to them and creating good environment for teachers to upgrade their education level.
Quartey and Regina (2013) did a study on human resource management practice in senior high school in the Akwapin North district in the Eastern region of Ghana. The study was mixed in nature and descriptive survey design was employed. In addition to that the research employed purposive and simple random sampling to obtain the participant of the study. The research collected data through interview and questionnaires. Through this study it was revealed that orientation should be organized for teachers when appointed to teach in the school. In service training workshop should also be organized for teachers from time to time to upgrade their skills and knowledge. Based on the findings of the study the study recommended that greater emphasis should be placed on upgrading of skills and knowledge of teachers through regular training orientation and development programs.

In relation to this study, Emily (2015) conducted a study in Nandi County Kenya on the role of public secondary school principal as human resource manager. The study employed quantitative research approach and descriptive survey research design. The study identified that the primary roles of the school principal include the recruitment of staff in school, encouraging team work among staff, empowering and encouraging them to develop their career. That means school heads as human resource manager engage to ensure that teachers in their schools work together as a team and encouraging them to develop their professionals so as to enhance better job performance. In addition to that, school heads in Nandi County in Kenya are much interested on teachers’ well fairs in their schools. The study also recommended that a further research to be carried out on the effect of the failed roles of principals as human resource managers on the performance of educational institutions.
Makewa and Mutie (2015) did a study on evaluating principals’ performance as human resource managers: Six standpoint indicators in Eastern Kenya. The study employed quantitative research approach and descriptive and comparative design based on cross-sectional survey. Also the study employed the total sample of 240 teachers in public secondary schools. In addition to that the researcher used open ended questionnaires to collect data on the areas of evaluation, namely the orientation, placement, development, appraisal, motivation and professional development of teachers. In this study it was identified that principals performed their roles as good human resource managers. That means principals were able to enhance teachers job performance by exercising all mentioned areas of evaluation. The study recommended that principals can improve their performance as human resource managers by closely working with them; They should also constantly brief teachers on emerging and crucial issues in education; Principals should be democratic fair, they should delegate duties according to the teachers abilities and make use of teachers professional skills and knowledge, job description should be clear to all.
In Tanzania, Manaseh (2016) conducted a study on instructional leadership: The role of heads of schools in managing the instructional program. In this study the researcher employed qualitative research approach which could not be generalized. This study used mixed research approach where qualitative and quantitative approaches complemented each other. In relation to that the study confirmed that heads of schools are not familiar with the concept of instructional leadership. On the other hand the instructional programs were not effectively managed as a head of department were not involved in the curriculum coordination, syllabus was not covered on time and the school heads did not undertake classroom observations in review of curriculum materials. These findings implied that head of schools in Tanzania have little influence in teaching and learning process. School heads are not very much involved in reviewing various document employed by teachers in teaching process such as scheme of work, lesson notes, lesson plan and class teachers attendance. The study recommended that there should be the present of capacity buildings programs for head of schools should focus on acquainting them with the model of instructional leadership, head of schools should be actively involved in curriculum. The study also recommend that schools heads should actively engage in actual classroom observations when teachers are teaching in classroom this may help to discover the strengths and weakness of teachers and therefore design appropriate support programs for them.
2.4.2 The Levels of Teachers’ Perceptions on the Roles of the School Heads as Human Resource Managers
Bouchamma, Basque and Marcotte (2014) examined on the school management competencies: perceptions and self-efficacy beliefs of school principals in Canada. The study employed questionnaires to collect data. The findings revealed that school principals whose professional development activities consisted of conventions and seminars also felt a greater sense of personal efficacy on this factor compared to the principals whose professional development was done through mentoring. The findings indicated that school principals should develop their professional by attending seminars and workshops. Career development enhances school heads to grow positively. Similarly to that, managerial skills among school heads can be enhanced through in service training specifically on the areas concerning school management, leadership and administration.

In addition to that, Khalil and Munir (2016) conducted a study on the secondary schools teachers’ perception of their principal’s leadership behavior and their academic performance at secondary school level in Lahore, Kasoor and Sheikhupura-Pakistan. The research employed qualitative research approach. . The study identified that the teachers’ perception are one of the most important indicators of their academic performance. It is also identified that the public secondary leaders are not empowered they are bound to follow the central directive, they also can’t offer performance based incentives to their teachers. The researcher also found that there is no full decentralization of authority in the Secondary schools leaders most of them receive directives from their bosses. Thus the study recommended that school principals should be trained in the leadership practices. School leaders should give value to the older and more experienced teachers by giving them autonomy, trust and delegating them greater responsibilities to gain their commitment.
Similarly, A. M. Isaiah and Isaiah (2014) looked on perception of teachers on the instructional roles of schools heads in secondary schools in Botswana. The researcher discovered that the communication channels were not clearly defined. The school heads appreciated the fact that they were not performing as they would like to do as an instructional leader. The study also found that the instructional responsibilities for the school heads were not clearly defined and there were very little that was said about their instructional supervision. Based on these findings it is important to establish and implement a guideline which spell out the roles of the school heads. This will act as a reference to school heads on making decision about different school matters. Thus the study recommended that school heads are to be retrained on how best to carry out their instructional roles for the benefit of their teachers and students, the range of function that school heads perform should focus more on methods of instructional supervision, communication channel in the schools must be clearly defined for all teachers and school head for all teachers and school heads must monitor the use of class time by teacher and students.
In relation to this study, Kirm and Osman (2012) conducted a study on Head teacher’s perception of their roles in secondary schools in Kericho County in Kenya. Qualitative and descriptive survey design was employed by the study. However, Kirm and Osman did not indicate what methodology was employed and what sample was used. The current study filled the gap by employing mixed method designs with a sample size of 100 respondents. The study identified that, the roles of principal has become dramatically more complex, overloaded and unclear over the past decade. The findings imply that, school principals lack clear stated roles they are just appointed as schools supervisors. This is because their ideal roles are far removed from their actual roles.
2.4.3 School Heads’ Roles as Human Resource Managers and Teachers’ Job Performance
Bianome, Sonhadji and purnomo (2016) conducted a study on the contribution of the principal’s managerial skills and organizational climate toward productive teacher’s professionalism of vocational high schools in Kupang in Indonesia. In this study the researcher employed quantitative research approach and correlation survey design and simple random sampling to obtain respondents. The study found that there is a contribution from the principals’ managerial skills and organizational climate toward teacher’s professionalism of productive in around Kupang city. It is interpreted that if the principal’s managerial skills and original climate are established well the professionalism of teachers of productive will be improved.
A related study was conducted by Alami, Sohaei, Berneti, Younesi, Farnia and Mirzajani (2015) on the effectiveness of human resource management on improving the performance of education staff in Asia. The study employed quantitative research approach, simple random sampling to get respondents. The study found that, human resource management has an effect on effectiveness of employee’s performance in designing and implementing training programs of development of human resources. It means that human resource management department in an organization is very important for designing professional development to the employees. The study also recommended that, there is a significant different between the view of staff and managers about human resource management impact on the effectiveness of staff.
Furthermore, Ndidi, Obiageli and Peace (2013) conducted the study on the managerial skills possessed by secondary schools principals in Anambra state-Nigeria and the enhancement strategies for national transformation. The study employed quantitative research approach and descriptive survey research design for the study. The study identified that many school principals did not possess the managerial skills for effective management of secondary schools for national transformation. Therefore sometimes this happens because some school principals are just appointed without looking their managerial skills level and they are not given even training. The study recommended that principals were encouraged to undertake continuous self professional development which would contribute to enhancing their managerial skills.
Onuma (2016) did a study on principal’s management support practices for enhancing teachers’ performance in secondary schools in Nigeria. The previous study was quantitative in nature and survey research design was employed. The researcher in this study employed proportionate random sampling techniques and stratified sampling. Not only that but also the research data was collected through questionnaires. The study revealed that school principals lacked supervisory skills and as a result entrusted academic supervision in the hand of external supervisors. Most principals feel reluctant to endorse in-service training for their teachers and teachers in turn hide their pursuit for higher degree from principals for fear of victimization.
Not only that but also, Muthoni (2015) conducted the study on the effectiveness of secondary school principals in management of human resource in Murang’a county Kenya. The study employed quantitative research approach and descriptive survey research design. The study also used purposive sampling to get respondents and data was collected through questionnaires with both closed and open-ended questions. The study identified that principals as the heads of the school are to executing the roles of human resource managers which include human resource planning, recruitment and selection, induction of staff, training and development and motivation of staff. The study also recommended that there must be regular workshop and short courses to help principals keep a breast with trend in human resource management.
Likewise, Nzambi (2012) investigated on the roles of the head teacher in instructional supervision as perceived by teachers in secondary schools in Kitui District-Kenya. The study employed quantitative research approach and descriptive survey design. The study obtained respondents through stratified, purposive and simple random sampling. In this study data were collected through questionnaires and later analyzed by the use of descriptive statistics (frequencies and percentages). The research revealed that, to some extent the head teacher encouraged new ideas, planned and executed new in-service courses for teacher professional growth. Also head teacher provided teaching and learning materials necessary resources for learning in the school. Furthermore head teachers encourage teachers to attend workshop, bringing in new ideas. Supports creativity, innovation and practices of new skills. That is to say school heads were very much involved in the whole school development and managed to develop teachers’ competency.
In relation to that, Kamete (2014) conducted the study on the influence of heads master’s managerial skills on effective school management in public secondary schools in Mbeya-Tanzania. The study employed mixed research approach, exploratory research design and simple random sampling was employed to get respondents. Therefore the study found that majority of the headmasters in public secondary school has managerial skills. Also the study recommended that secondary school heads need to employ their conceptual, human communication as well as leadership skills to encourage academic staff to improve on the quality of classroom teaching. The government needs to lay down a policy on managerial skills training for the head of schools as they do in other managerial levels in other organizations.
2.4.4 Strategies to be used by the School Heads as Human Resource Managers
Graham, Hudson and Willis (2014) carried out a study in Australia on how can principals enhance teachers’ job satisfaction and work commitment. The research employed qualitative approach. The data were collected through semi-structured interview and later transcribed and coded for the content themes that related to work commitment and leadership. The study found that relational leadership such as valuing staff, being approachable; being consistent with staff interactions, having good interpersonal skills and developing staff strength were noted to have specific impact on teachers’ work commitment. That means relational skills impact positively teachers work commitment, so it is the responsibility of the school heads to put more emphasize on maintaining proper relationship with the staff. Therefore the study recommended that improving relational skills may help school leaders to increase teachers work. Teachers’ attrition is a serious concern to many education jurisdictions and by understanding reasons for decline in commitment, jurisdiction can redress the negative impact of leadership practices and keep teachers committed and in the profession.
Likewise, Mukherjee (2013) conducted a study on the managerial skills of school principals to assess their impact and relative importance in driving schools performance in government and private schools in Ghaziabad and Mathura District in India. The study employed quantitative research approach and structured survey questionnaire. Through this study the researcher identified that supervisory skills and communication skills are two most important skills set required for managerial effectiveness of principals. Therefore the study mean that school principals are obligated to have managerial and communication skills so as to harmonize and to ensure the effectiveness of their institution.
Similarly, Apolline (2015) carried out the study on motivational strategies used by principals in the management of secondary schools in Fako Division of Southwest Region of Cameroon. The research approach and design that the researcher adopted for the study were quantitative approach and descriptive survey design. The study identified that motivational strategies of principals includes those related to the teaching and learning process. Secondary school principals in the Fuko Division of Cameroon motivate their teachers through different motivational strategies. That is to say school principals in Cameroon use different strategies which to the large extent are concerned with ensuring the availability of teaching and learning materials and enhancing conducive environment for the attainment of the schools goals. The study recommended that governments should explore means of upgrading the salary of secondary teachers through the increase of their allowances such as housing or family allowance.
A part from that, Kiboss and Jemiryott (2014) conducted the study on the relationship between principals Leadership style and secondary school teachers’ job satisfaction in Nandi South District Kenya. The study employed mixed research approach, descriptive survey design and questionnaires for data collection. The study found that principals leadership style have a great impact on the working atmosphere in a school and consequently the teachers job satisfaction. That means leadership style employed by the school heads can enhance or retardate the working morale of teachers. So school heads need to be contingency that is they have to apply a particular leadership style depending on the nature. There are some situations they can use democratic, other situation transformational style, instructional and distributed leadership style. Based on the research findings the study recommended that principals need to establish a pleasant teaching and learning climate in their schools, principals should improve their way of public relations and accept constructive criticism.
In relation to that, Musa (2014) conducted the study on the role of the school leadership in motivating teachers in Ilala municipality Dar es Salaam. The study employed mixed research approach and descriptive survey design. The study also employed purposive sampling and simple random sampling. In this study data was collected through questionnaires and interview. The study found that school based factors leading to teacher motivation (good working condition), parents involvement in school issues and learners discipline. That means teachers are in the other hand are motivated by working in the good school climate such as physical, social and academic climate. The study also recommended that heads of schools should ensure the improvement of school environment as well as bolstering teacher’s capability to develop teaching and learning materials.

2.5 The Knowledge Gap of the Reviewed Literature
The reviewed studies from both developed and developing countries concentrated on looking the general roles of the school heads/ principals or leaders, where by this current study assessed the roles of the school heads as human resource managers in enhancing teachers’ job performance in public secondary schools that is the uniqueness of the current study from the reviewed studies. In addition to that various reviewed studies were conducted in different geographical location and time that means some of them were conducted in Europe, Asia, Africa, East Africa and Tanzania in 2012, 2013, 2014, 2015 and 2016 years but this study was conducted in 2018 in Kwimba in Mwanza-Tanzania. Therefore, there was a great possibility of the findings to vary from that of the reviewed studies and that of the current study.
Also most of the reviewed studies employed a single research approach for example (Emily, 2015; Isaiah, and N. Isaiah, 2014; Bianome, Sonhadji and Purnomo, 2016; Sahaei, Younesi, Farnia and Mirzajani 2015; Ndidi, Obiageli and Peace, 2013; Muthoni, 2015; Mukherjee, 2013 and Appolline, 2015) employed quantitative research approach. Also, other researchers employed qualitative research approach such as (Qutoshi & Khaki, 2014; Manaseh, 2014; Khalil & Munir, 2016; Kirm & Osman, 2012). The remained few researchers employed mixed research approach. While the current study used a mixed research approach which accommodated both quantitative and qualitative aspects.
Also the reviewed studies employed different research designs like descriptive survey design, correlation survey design, and exploratory research designs. In obtaining the sample, the reviewed studies employed purposive sampling, and simple random sampling. The current study used simple random sampling, purposive and stratified sampling to obtain the sample.
Finally most of the reviewed studies employed questionnaires (closed and open ended questionnaire), interview, participant observation and document analysis to obtain data while the current study employed both closed and open ended questionnaires for teachers and interview guide was administered to school heads.

CHAPTER THREE
RESEARCH METHODOLOGY
3.1Introduction
This chapter presents research approach, research design, study area and rationale, target population, sample size and sampling techniques. Also, the chapter presents methods of data collection, pilot study, validity and reliability of the instrument. Data collection procedures, data recording and analysis as well as ethical considerations are finally presented.
3.2 Research Approach
This study employed a mixed research approach which involves both quantitative and qualitative research methods. Mixed method is the research approach in which the researcher collects, analyzes, and mixes both quantitative and qualitative data in a single study (Creswell, 2012). That means both quantitative and qualitative data/information were collected, analyzed and interpreted in a single study. Creswell (2014) viewed quantitative research is an approach for testing objective theories by examining the relationship among variables. “Qualitative research approach refers to the research approach that relies on qualitative modes of data collection and analysis” (Klenke, 2016, p. 6). Mixed research approach help to complement the weaknesses which are found in both quantitative and qualitative researches. It also provided a comprehensive understanding of the research problem than either using one type by itself.
3.3 Research Design
According to Creswell (2014), research designs are types of inquiries within qualitative, quantitative and mixed methods approaches that provide specific direction for procedures in a research design. This study used convergent parallel design. Convergent parallel design occurs when the researchers use converging timing to carry out the quantitative and qualitative studies during the same phase of the research process. “Convergent parallel design aims to obtain different but complementary data about a central phenomenon” (Richards & Hallberg, 2015, p. 37). The study used convergent parallel design because it is very potential for validating qualitative and quantitative data vice versa. It also facilitated the development of an overall understanding of the research questions (Babar, 2015, P. 113).
3.4 Study Area and Rationale
This study on the roles of school heads as human resource managers in enhancing teachers’ job performance in public secondary schools was conducted at Kwimba district. Kwimba district is found at Mwanza Region and it is bordered to the North by Magu district, to the East by Maswa and Kishapu districts, to the South by Shinyanga rural district and to the West by Misungwi district. Furthermore, Kwimba district has thirty three (33) public secondary schools where by this study purposefully involved ten (10) public secondary school by involving the heads of the schools and teachers. The gathered information from the study was used by the researcher to represent the degree in which school heads as human resource managers carry out their roles in enhancing teachers’ job performance in public secondary schools. Also the study was conducted in Kwimba district because the academic performance or achievement of public secondary schools especially in form four national examinations was very low that means the number of students who are scoring division four and zero in Kwimba district for many years is very large.
3.5 Target Population
Hunter and Dantzker (2012) viewed that population is the complete group or class from which information is to be gathered. Furthermore population is a group of people who are living in a particular geographical unit and conduct different activities. Jha (2014) conceptualized target population as the population which is actually studied. That is to say target population is a group of people with different characteristics from which the researcher desires to conduct the study. Therefore, this study targeted all public secondary schools, heads of schools and teachers in these schools in Kwimba district. The respondents were at the centre of educational practices; hence, they would have adequate information to answer the research questions.
3.6 Sample Size and Sampling Procedures
3.6.1 Sampling Procedures
Drenna (2009) defined sampling is the selection of a sample of element from a larger population of elements for the purpose of making certain kind of inferences about that larger population as a whole. Sampling procedure is a representative of the population so as to make correct generalization about all of the population (Cargan, 2007). Therefore, this study used both probability and non probability sampling. Under probability sampling the researcher used stratified sampling and simple random sampling. Stratified sampling is the one that requires the researcher to possess a list of every population sampling unit and the relevant characteristics about each sampling unit used in establishing strata (Jugenheimer, Kelly, Hudson & Bradley, 2014).
This study used stratified sampling to sample 90 teachers basing on gender that is male and female from 10 selected public secondary schools. Stratified sampling procedure helped the researcher to get participants with different perception over the research problem. Matthews and Kostelis (2011) conceptualized simple random sampling as a randomized method to ensure that all participants in the target population have an equal likely chance of being selected for the research sample. This study used simple random sampling to sample the respondents of both genders in the working field. Also simple random sampling provided equal (fair) chance for every member in the targeted population to be selected as a representative of the whole targeted population of the study. Under non probability sampling the study used purposive sampling, where by purposive sampling is one where people from a pre specified group are purposely sought out and sampled (Lacey & Gerrish, 2010). The study employed purposive sampling to sample ten (10) public secondary schools and ten (10) heads of schools for this study. In that case purposive sampling helped the researcher to get secondary schools and school heads with required in-depth information.
3.6.2 Sample Size
Sample size is the part of the population selected for a particular experiment or study. “Sample size is an important step in the design of a study” (Ahn, Heo & Zhang, 2015, p. 2). In that matter the study used a total of one hundred (100) participants who were selected from ten (10) public secondary schools. Therefore, the researcher used the total of ten (10) school heads and Ninety (90) teachers that is to say; each school provided one school head and nine (9) teachers who were used in this study.

Table 1.
Distribution of the Participants
Types of participants Number of participants Percentages (%) of participants
Head of schools 10 10
Teachers 90 90
Total sample size 100 100

3.7 Methods of Collecting Data
These are methods through which the researcher uses to collect data/information in the field of study. Data collection is an essential element in the production of useful data for analysis and is subject to empirical research informed by theory (Groves et al. 2009). There are different methods of collecting data but according to this type of study, the researcher used questionnaires and interview guides.
3.7.1 Questionnaire
Questionnaire can be described as method that seeks written or verbal responses from people to a written set of questions or statements (Parahoo as cited in Steen & Roberts, 2011). Questionnaire may involve both closed and open-ended questions. Krausss (2009) viewed questionnaire as an excellent means to obtain the information identified under the personal and professional due diligence headings. This study employed both closed and open ended questionnaires. Closed ended questions are the one that require respondents to choose from a limited number of responses that are predetermined by the researcher; they provide primarily quantitative data (Johnson & Christensen, 2012). Closed ended questions limit respondents to the same response categories and allow standardized quantitative statistical analysis. The researcher of this study administered closed ended questions to 90 teachers from selected public secondary schools which helped to obtain quantitative data. Also closed ended questions enabled the researcher to save time because a large group of respondents was administered at the same time. Open ended questionnaires are questions that can be used in both quantitative and qualitative studies they are much more prominent in qualitative research (Rubin & Babbie, 2010). This study also administered open ended questions to teachers in order to get qualitative data. Also, open ended questions allowed the respondents to express their perceptions and altitudes about the research problem.
3.7.2 Interviews Guide
Interview is a method of collecting data through formal conversation between interviewer and interviewee. That is, the interviewer asks open ended questions to interviewee so as to get information. Interviews occur when the researcher asks one or more participants general open-ended questions and records their answers (Creswell, 2012). In this regard, this study used semi-structured interview guides whereby, the interviewers use an interview guide with specific questions that are organized by topic but are not necessarily asked in a specific order (Bailey, 2007). The researcher of this study administered semi-structured interview to the heads of the schools so as to obtain qualitative data. Semi-structured interview guide helped the heads of schools to provide clarifications on relevant and useful information about the issue under study.
3.8 Pilot Study, Validity and Reliability of the Instruments
3.8.1 Pilot Study
Pilot study was done to check the effectiveness and efficiency of the data collection instrument in collecting the relevant and needed information to answer the research questions. Blessing and Chakrabarti (2009) conceptualized that the main aim of pilot study is to try out the research approach to identify potential problems that may affect the quality and validity of the results. The researcher used test-retest method by piloting one public secondary school in Kwimba district at two times by administering the research instruments to six teachers so as to test its effectiveness and efficiency. This was done mainly to ensure the validity and reliability of the data collection instruments.
3.8.2 Validity of the Instruments
Validity means that the test measures what it is supposed to measure (Dubin, Pilitsis, Argoff & McCleane, 2009). In this study validity was used to assess whether the research instruments measure what were supposed to be measured. In order to ensure face and content validity the researcher exposed the research instruments to the experts for scrutiny. Some of these experts were the members of the department of education like the supervisor and my colleague were also asked to review the instruments.
3.8.3 Reliability of the Instruments
According to Picardi and Masick (2014) reliability refers to the consistency of a measure across subsequent tests or over time. That is to say reliability is the ability of the research instruments’ items to produce stable and consistent results even though administered twice. The study used test-retest reliability. “Test-retest method is the measure of stability overtime, it is useful in situations where performance is expected to remain somewhat stable across time” (Watson ; Flamez, 2015, p. 70). Therefore, this study administered the research instruments (questionnaires) to six (6) teachers in one public secondary school in the area of the study. Then, after ten days the researcher administered the same research instruments to the same teachers of the same piloted school. The researcher compared the findings of the first time and second time to see if they correlate. Finally, all ambiguities and vagueness in the research instruments were rectified before subjected to the actual field. However the piloted sample was excluded from participating in the study.
3.9 Data Collection Procedures
Before going to the field for data collection the researcher obtained the permission from the department of education from St. Augustine university of Tanzania. Then the permission letter was submitted to the Mwanza Regional Administrative Secretary (RAS) and to the District Administrative Secretary (DAS) to be allowed to collect research data to the requested ten public secondary schools in Kwimba district. After obtaining the permit, the researcher communicated with each school head in order to schedule for administering questionnaires to the selected teachers and conducting interviews.
3.10 Data Recording and Analysis
Data recording is a process which involves recording information through research protocols, administering data collection so that you can anticipate potential problem in data collection and bringing sensitive to ethical issues that may affect the quality of data (Creswell, 2012). While data analysis is the process of transforming the bits and process of information that are collected in whatever fashion into something that is usable by the policy maker (Shulsky ; Schmitt, 2011). Both qualitative and quantitative data analysis procedures were used. Quantitative data obtained from closed ended questions were coded by using Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS) version 20. Also, those data were analyzed and presented by using descriptive statistics such as tables, frequencies and percentages. Qualitative data obtained through semi-structured interviews were recorded through audio devices and field notes and later were carefully transcribed and analyzed according to the themes and categories to ensure accuracy in transcription and to verify that the response adhere to the informants. Then the identified themes were pooled into the same category. Finally, qualitative data were presented in the form of narrative and direct quotations.
3.11 Ethical Consideration
Ethical considerations are specified to be the most important part of the research. The current study adhered to the research ethical matters such as inform the consent, maintain confidentiality, privacy and avoid plagiarism as articulated in the literature (Creswell, 2014).
The researcher maintained confidentiality by using figurative names like capital later instead of the school names. Also the study did not mention the name of the research participants who were involved in the research study. In relation to that the researcher maintained confidentiality due to the fact that the information those were provided by the research participants were not disclosed to other people.
Privacy was maintained, since during data collection the researcher selected the area which enabled the research participants to be free to provide all the required information confidently. Furthermore, in this study plagiarism was avoided by disallowing the presentation or the use of someone’s ideas, and words without any consent or acknowledging them. The researcher also asked for permission from the department of education at St. Augustine University of Tanzania and then applied for a research permit to the RAS, DAS for data collection. In addition to that the respect of all research participants was prioritized. Bryman and Bell (2007) viewed that research participant should not be subjected to any harm. Furthermore, in this study any type of communication in relation to the research was honest and transparent. Likewise, the researcher successively avoided any type of misleading information as well as presentation of primary findings in a biased way. Finally, the use of offensive, discriminatory or other unacceptable language was avoided.

CHAPTER FOUR
PRESENTATION OF FINDINGS
4.1 Introduction
This study sought to assess the roles of the school heads as human resource managers in enhancing teachers’ job performance in public secondary schools in Kwimba district. This chapter consists of respondents’ demographic information and the research findings which were presented and organized based on the research objectives. In this regard, the researcher collected qualitative data through interview guides from 10 targeted heads of public secondary schools which also implied that the return rate of the interview guides were 100 percent. Also the study administered questionnaires to 90 targeted public secondary school teachers whereby quantitative and qualitative data were gathered. All distributed questionnaires were returned which indicated 100 percent. This was due to the fact that in each school the researcher distributed questionnaires and collected within a single day.
4.2 Participants’ Demographic Information
This study was conducted in ten targeted public secondary schools in Kwimba district. In this study the demographic variables that were given attention included gender, age, highest education qualification and working experience of the research participants which were presented in table 2

Table 2.
Participants’ Demographic Information (n=100)
Variables Frequency Percent
Gender
Male 76 76.0
Female 24 24.0

Age
21-30 years 43 43.0
31-40 years 41 41.0
41-50 years 13 13.0
51 years and above 3 3.0

Highest Education Qualification
Diploma 39 39.0
Bachelor 58 58.0
Masters 3 3.0

Working Experience
Less than 1year 6 6.0
1-10 years 75 75.0
11-20 years 13 13.0
21-30 years 6 6.0

Gender was very important in this research study. The researcher was interested to look on gender so as to understand the number of male and female participants who were involved in the current study.
Table 2 indicates that 76 percent of the participants were male while 24 percent were female. The results indicated that participants who were involved in this research study were more male teachers than female teachers. That is to say there was no equal gender participation in this study. Due to the fact that there was no equal distribution of male and female teachers in many public secondary schools in Kwimba district and in Tanzania in general.
As far as the respondents’ age is concerned, the researcher of this study was also interested to look on the age interval of the participants. The main aim was to understand the age of the respondents who were involved in the study. Table 2 demonstrates that the first large group of participants was in age class 21-30 years who were 43 percent; the second group was in age class 31-40 years who were 41percent. The third one belonged to age class 41-50 years who were 13 percent and the last class intervals was 51ages and above were 3 percent. The implication of this result was that, most of the participants who were involved in this study were young teachers compared to aged one; not only that but also the results imply that there was unequal distribution of teachers by age in many public secondary schools. Furthermore, due to the presence of many young teachers in secondary school this indicated that many public secondary schools in Kwimba District and Tanzania at large has powerful and energetic human resources.
In addition to that, the researcher was interested in looking at highest education qualification of the participants who were involved in this study. The Participants who were involved in this research study had reached different highest education qualifications. Those who had diploma were 39 percent and those who had bachelor degree were 58 percent and finally those participants with masters’ level were 3 percent. Therefore the findings imply that, many public secondary schools in Tanzania consists many teachers with bachelor degree who are well educated one and are very potential for the academic achievement in public secondary schools in Kwimba District and Tanzania at large.
Working experience was very essential in this research study. Thus, the researcher was interested to look on participants working experience. The results indicated that, participants with 1 year and below were 6 percent, 1-10 were 75 percent, 11-20 were 13 percent, and 21-30 were 6 percent. The findings implied that, many public secondary schools had less experienced teachers who could mentor the young one because majority of teachers worked for less than 11 years.
4.3 The Roles of School Heads as Human Resource Managers
The roles played by the school heads as human resource managers are very essential for enhancing teachers’ job performance in public secondary schools. The researcher developed the first objective which focused to explore the roles of school heads as human resource managers in enhancing teachers’ job performance in public secondary schools. In order to explore this the researcher used questionnaires to develop five items concerning the objectives where five-point likert scale were administered to the participants who were teachers through the option that were given as: almost never, seldom, sometimes, frequently and almost always. The researcher combined both almost never and seldom to show negative response about the research question while sometimes the researcher put in either side of responses and finally were frequently and almost always which the researcher combined together to indicate positive responses towards the research question of this study. The results are presented in table 3.

Table 3.
Roles of school heads as human resource managers (n=90)
Responses
Frequency/Percentage
Item measured Almost never
f (%) Seldom

f (%) Sometimes
f (%) Frequently
f (%) Almost always
f (%) Total

f (%)
Encouraging team work 27(30) 27(30) 17(18.9) 10(11.1) 9(10) 90(100)
Developing teachers career 19(21.1) 20(22.2) 26(28.9) 12(13.3) 13(14.4) 90(100)
Creating safe working environment 30(33.3) 19(21.1) 17(18.9) 13(14.4) 11(12.2) 90(100)
Teaching supervision 9(10) 5(5.6) 14(15.6) 30(33.3) 32(35.6) 90(100)
Encouraging discipline among teachers 31(34.4) 24(26.7) 8(8.9) 16(17.8) 11(12.2) 90(100)

Table 3 indicate that, 60 percent of the participants showed that school heads do not encourage team work in their schools, while 18.9 percent of the participants demonstrated that, sometimes the school heads encourage team work . The findings also indicated that, 21.1 percent of the participants agreed that, school heads as human resource managers encourage team work in their working secondary schools. Therefore by referring to the general participants’ response, it implies that, school heads do not encourage teamwork which could enhance teachers’ job performance and achieve the schools intended goals.
Furthermore, table 3 reveals that, 43.3 percent of the participants demonstrated negative responses on the statement that, school heads in public secondary schools are involved in developing teachers’ career. While 28.9 percent of the participants remained neutral because their responses showed that sometimes school heads engage in developing teachers’ career. Also, 27.7 percent of the participants indicated that, school heads are involved in developing teachers’ career. These findings denoted that in most cases school heads as human resource managers do not put much concern on developing teachers’ career which was very essential in enhancing teachers’ job performance.
Additionally, 54.4 percent of the participants demonstrated that, school heads do not engage in creating safe working environment. Also, 18.9 percent of the participants indicated that, sometimes school heads created safe working environment. While, 26.6 percent of the respondents revealed that, school heads as human resource managers have been creating safe working environment for enhancing teachers’ job performance. The implication of all responses indicate that, school heads as human resource managers were less involved in creating safe working environment in their schools that is why teachers does not carry out their duties effectively and efficiently.
Similarly, 15 percent of respondents demonstrated that, school heads in many public secondary schools do not engage much in instructional supervision, 15.6 percent were in neutral position that means sometimes school heads as human resource managers are involved in teaching supervision. While 68.9 percent of the participants indicated that, the heads of public secondary schools were much involved in teaching supervision. That is to say, school heads in many public secondary schools were involved in teaching supervision. Teaching supervision enhances teachers’ job performance and later improves students’ academic performance.
Not only that but also, 61.1 percent of the participants revealed that school heads as human resource managers do not encourage discipline among teachers. While, 8.9 percent of the participants pointed out that, school heads sometimes encouraged discipline among teachers. On the other hand, 30 percent of the participants perceived positively the statement that, school heads encourage discipline among teachers in public secondary schools so as to enhance teachers’ job performance. Therefore the findings of this study imply that, school heads do not encourage discipline among teachers which was very crucial for enhancing teachers’ job performance.
Related to research objective one, the respondents were asked to list other roles performed by school heads as human resource managers. The findings indicated that, most of respondents listed the school heads roles such as provision of guidance and counseling, planning and placement of teachers, reshape, develop school mission and vision and recommending for teachers promotion as explained as follows.
Certainly about 72.9 percent of the respondents revealed that, school heads as human resource managers have been playing the role of providing guidance and counseling to their teachers once they face with social and sometimes economic problems. Also the research participants revealed that, school heads have been exercising the guidance and counseling not only when teachers face with social and economic problems but also when teachers are employed to a particular school for the first time. Because in most cases teachers used to be stressed with the newly employed environment which they are not familiar with. So guidance and counseling has been enabling teachers to cope and to have the morale of carrying out the duties and fill comfortable with working environment.
Similarly, 52.6 percent of the participants indicated that, school heads as human resource managers also plays the role of managing conflicts that happen among teachers in the working environment. School heads as human resource managers have been involving in settling misunderstandings or disagreements that are used to happen in their schools among teachers, where without solving them can retardate the working performance of teachers in their working institutions.
Furthermore, 67.7 percent of the respondents explained that, apart from other roles that school heads play as human resource managers they are also involved in making planning and placement of teachers in their schools such as appointing the second master or mistress, academic masters, discipline masters, school patron and matron, sports and game masters and other heads of subjects’ departments.
similarly, 63.2 percent of participants revealed that, school heads reshape and develop school mission and vision which is very important for the academic success of any secondary schools and 50.7 percent said that, school heads as human resource managers engage in recommending teachers’ promotion hence teachers are appointed to be the heads of public secondary schools, district academic officers, school quality assurers, district statistics and logistic officers, zonal quality assurers and district educational officers.
In order to obtain in-depth information concerning the roles of the school heads as human resource managers, the researcher conducted ten interviews to the heads of schools. The findings revealed several themes which emerged as roles of school heads as human resource managers. Among the themes included were teaching supervision, managing conflicts, planning and placement of teachers and ensuring discipline among teachers. The themes are presented based on their emergence in the interviews.
Teaching Supervision
Teaching supervision emerged as strong theme among the school heads in interviews. It was reported that, majority of the school heads who participated in this study promote teaching supervision in the school settings. They ensure that, the school timetable is abided by teachers and students as scheduled. Speaking about teaching supervision, a head of school G spoke that,
First of all, I ensure that teachers and students follow the school calendar and time table. The school time table shows daily duties of each teacher and the time of exercising such activities while the school calendar shows the date and day where different events will be exercised within a particular year which includes the date of opening and closing the school. (Head of school G March 16, 2018).
The quotations above indicate that, school heads as human resource managers carry out the role of supervising teaching which is very crucial for the realization of the school goals. Additionally, the school heads supervised teaching by ensuring that the instructional materials are available to enable teachers carry out their duties effectively. For instance a head of school H voiced that, “I ensure the availability of teaching and learning materials to my teachers like textbooks which have been authorized by the Tanzania Institute of Education (TIE). These materials include chalkboards, chalks, computers, photocopy machine, maps and graphs”. (Head of school H March 17, 2018). Going through the feelings of school heads, it could be established that, the role of human resource managers is exercised among public secondary schools. Also, the school heads check the curriculum materials like schemes of works, lesson plans and class journals to supervise teaching practices in schools. Responding to the same question, a head of school D echoed a related statement in an interview. He said that,
I have different roles to play; one of them is encouraging teachers to work hard so as to accomplish the school set objectives. I also insist teachers to cover all topics of their respective classes. I achieve this by checking teachers’ lesson plans and class journals in every Friday and I provide feedback on the next Monday for improvements. (Head of school D March 13, 2018).
The school heads are knowledgeable about the core functions of learning institutions like schools. They make sure that students are taught as it is scheduled. Therefore, the findings of this study imply that, there was a consensus of ideas in the quantitative and qualitative data concerning the role of school heads in teaching supervision. Teachers rated teaching supervision as the highest role played by the school heads. Also, during interviews, teaching supervision emerged as the strongest theme among school heads.

Managing Conflicts
The findings of this study revealed that, school heads managed the conflicts which used to happen among teachers, students and the staff in general. The school heads claimed that, if conflicts were left unsolved, they could harm the school climate and hence affect teachers’ job performance. For example, a head of school E was quoted saying that, “As an overall in charge of this school, I solve different misunderstandings which occur between teachers and students, but also, between teachers and school administration”. . (Head of school E March 14, 2018). From the quotation above it indicates that, both teachers and school heads share the same ideas about practicing role of ensuring that there is tranquility among teachers, students and staff members to enable a smooth realization of the school goals. Furthermore, the findings revealed that, school heads engaged in creating a positive rapport with the neighboring community. When interviewed about the same question, a head of school J replied that, “I ensure proper relationship between the school and the surrounding community so that we live in harmony”. (Head of school J March 19, 2018). Based on these findings, school heads have been encouraging good relationship with community since schools as institutions are not self contained. There are some services that school depends from the surrounding community.
Planning and Placement of Teachers
As it was indicated in quantitative data that the school heads plan and do placement of teachers. A similar theme emerged in interviews among the school heads. The findings indicated that, the school heads used to plan for the school. The role of planning involved activities such as preparing strategic and action plans. Furthermore, school heads appointed teachers in different job positions like heads of departments, academic coordinators, discipline coordinators and second masters or mistresses. For instance, a head of school A said that,
In this school, I do planning. In fact I involve my teachers in making strategic and action plans. The strategic plan is for three to five years while the action plan is for a year. Apart from planning, I normally do a job ration to teachers from time to time. I appoint teachers to hold vacant job positions in my school depending on their teaching experience and good conduct. “. (Head of school A March 10, 2018). The school heads involve their followers in planning various school matters which are very essential for enhancing teachers’ performance and school academic development.
Furthermore, the findings in interview indicated that, the school heads reshape and develop school vision and mission but also initiate the income generating projects. For instance, a head of school C stated that, “We sometimes reshape our school vision and mission in order to know if we are achieving the pre-set objectives. We also design and establish income generating projects which are useful to run our school”. (Head of school C March 12, 2018). Based on the findings of this study, it could be established that, school heads are knowledgeable and skillful on the importance of generating extra income to supplement the deficiencies of the school budget.

Ensuring Discipline among Teachers
The findings of this study indicated that there was no consensus among teachers and school heads on the role of ensuring discipline matters among teachers. In quantitative findings, teachers were reported to disagree that, the school heads ensure discipline among staff members. While in interviews, it was found that, the school heads ensure discipline matters. Speaking about ensuring discipline among teachers, a head of school F commented that, “I insist on the teachers to adhere to the laws, rules and regulations guiding public servants that are provided by the Ministries of Education and Public Service Management and Good Governance”. “. (Head of school F March 15, 2018) The school heads ensure that, teachers abide by the code of conducts of the teaching profession. Additionally the head of schools claimed that they supervise discipline matters among teachers and students. Discipline matters involved dress codes, reporting early to school and proper use of language. Responding to the same question the head of school B added that,
In my school, I have sate norms where all teachers and students are supposed to come early to the school and leave as scheduled. Also there are stipulated dress codes which guide staff members and students. If stipulated norms are breached by either teachers or students, I provide penalty to them. (Head of school B March 11, 2018).
The school heads make sure that there is a smooth implementation of the school tasks by adhering to the standing orders guiding teachers as well as the school rules guiding students.
Conclusion
In a nutshell, the findings of this study revealed that, school heads in selected public secondary schools in Kwimba district do not carry out some roles as human resource managers. It was found that, the school heads do not encourage teamwork and develop teachers’ career. Furthermore, the findings indicated that, the school heads do not create safe working environment as well as encourage discipline among teachers. However, teaching supervision, managing conflicts, planning and placement of teachers, were explored as roles carried out by the school heads as human resource managers.
4.5 Teachers’ Levels of Perceptions on the Roles of School Heads as Human Resource Managers
Determining teachers’ levels of perceptions concerning the roles of the school heads as human resource managers is very important. Because it helps to know whether teachers or the research participants perceive in the lowest, medium and highest levels the roles played by the school heads as human resource managers in public secondary schools. In this regard, the researcher developed the second objectives which focused on determining the levels of teachers’ perceptions on the roles played by the school heads as human resource managers in public secondary schools. So in order to determine the teachers’ perceptions, the researcher used questionnaires to develop three items about the objectives whereby three scales levels were administered to the research participants. The options which were given to participants were lowest level, medium level and highest level.
The researcher of this study used frequencies and percentages to determine the ration for each variable. The results are presented in table 4.

Table 4.
Levels of Teachers’ Perception on the Roles Played by the School Head as Human Resource Managers (n=90)
Responses
Frequency/Percentage
Roles of school heads as human resource managers Lowest level
f (%) Medium level
f (%) Highest level
f (%) Total

f (%)

Encouraging team work 18(20) 5(5.6) 67(74.5) 90(100)
Developing teachers career 57(63.3) 6(6.7) 27(30) 90(100)
Creating safe working environment 39(43.3) 6(6.7) 45(50) 90(100)
Teaching supervision 15(16.7) 3(3.3) 72(80) 90(100)
Encouraging discipline among teachers 53(58.9) 7(7.8) 30(33.3) 90(100)

In table 4 the responses indicated that, 20 percent of respondents, perceived that, school heads’ role of encouraging teamwork enhance teachers’ job performance in the lowest level. While, 74.4 percent of respondents perceived that, school heads’ role of encouraging teamwork enhance teachers’ job performance in the highest level. Furthermore 5.6 percent of respondent perceived that, school heads’ role of encouraging teamwork enhance teachers’ job performance in the medium level. Therefore this findings imply that, team work in secondary schools enhance teachers’ job performance in very high level and leads to the achievement of the school goal.
In relation to that, 63.3 percent of the respondents perceived that, school heads’ role of developing teachers’ career enhance teachers’ job performance in the lowest level. While 30 percent of respondent perceived that, school heads’ role of developing teachers career enhance teachers’ job performance in the highest level. Also 6.7 percent of the respondents perceived that, developing teachers’ career enhance teachers’ job performance in the medium level while. The findings of this study mean that, developing teachers’ career do not enhance teachers’ job performance in public secondary schools.
Furthermore, 43.3 percent of the respondents perceived that, school heads’ role of creating a safe working environment enhance teachers’ job performance in lowest level. However, 50 percent of the respondents perceived that, school heads’ role of creating a safe working environment enhance teachers’ job performance in public secondary schools in very highest level. While 6.7 percent of respondents perceived that, school heads’ role of creating safe working environment enhance teachers’ job performance in the medium level. So this finding imply that safe working environment enhance teachers’ job performance in very highest level and leads to the achievement of the school goals.
In connection to that, 16.7 percent of t respondents perceived that, teaching supervision as school heads’ role enhance teachers job performance in the lowest level. While 80 percent of the respondents perceived that, school heads’ role of teaching supervision enhance teachers’ job performance in the highest level. However 3.3 percent of respondents perceived that, teaching supervision as a school heads’ role enhance teachers’ job performance in a medium level. Going through teachers’ perceptions, it could be established that, teaching supervision enhances teachers’ job performance in a very highest level.
Not only that but also 58.9 percent of the respondents perceived that, school heads’ roles of encouraging discipline among teachers enhance teachers’ job performance in a lowest level. While 33.3 percent of the respondents perceived that, in public secondary schools enhances teachers’ job performance. While, 2.2 percent undecided with the statement that encouraging discipline among teachers enhances teachers’ job performance. Also, 26.7 percent of the participants indicated that, encouraging discipline among enhances teachers’ job performance in public secondary schools.
In general, the findings this study imply that, teachers perceived some roles played by school heads as positively and negatively. For example, the roles like encouraging teamwork, creating safe working environment and teaching supervision were perceived positively by the participants as catalysts in enhancing teachers’ job performance. Roles such as developing teachers’ career, and encouraging discipline among teachers were perceived negatively in enhancing teachers’ job performance.
4.6 The Extent to which School Heads’ Roles as Human Resource Managers enhance teachers job performance
Examining the extent to which school heads’ roles as human resource managers enhance teachers’ job performance is very necessary. It helps to know the extent to which school heads’ roles enhance teachers’ job performance in public secondary schools. In that case the researcher developed a third objective which examined the extent to which school heads’ roles as human resource managers enhance teachers’ job performance in public secondary schools. Therefore, in order to obtain the desired information, the researcher used questionnaires to teachers. Five likert scale items were developed to elicit information from teachers which involved the strongly disagree, disagree, undecided, agree and strongly agree. The measured variables on teachers’ job performance involved lesson preparation, classroom management, using teaching aids and evaluation of teaching. Also, the study used frequencies to examine each variable. The results are presented in the table 5.
Table 5.
The Extent to Which School Heads’ roles enhance teachers’ job performance (n=90)

Responses
Frequency/Percentage
Teachers’ job performance SD DS UD AG SA Total
f(%) f(%) f(%) f(%) f(%) f(%)
Lesson preparation 9(10) 14(15.6) 9(10) 28(31.1) 30(33.3) 90(100)
Classroom management 23(25.6) 32(35.6) 6(6.7) 17(18.9) 12(13.3) 90(100)
Teaching by using teaching aids effectively 7(7.8) 15(16.7) 11(12.2) 33(36.6) 24(26.7) 90(100)
Evaluation of teaching 24(26.7) 23(25.6) 8(8.9) 19(21.1) 16(17.8) 90(100)

Table 5 indicates the responses of teachers on the extent to which the school heads’ roles enhance their job performance. The findings of this study reveal that, 64.4 percent of respondents agreed that the school heads’ roles as human resource managers enhance their job performance in lesson preparation while 25. 6 disagreed. However, 10 percent were undecided as to whether school heads’ roles influence their job performance on lesson preparation.
Furthermore, it was found that, 61.2 percent of respondents disagreed that the school heads’ roles enhance teachers’ job performance on classroom management while 32.2 percent agreed. It was also found that, 6.7 of respondents were unsure as to whether school heads’ roles enhance teachers’ job performance on classroom management.
Additionally, 63.3 percent of the respondents demonstrated that, school heads roles enhance teachers’ job performance on teaching by using teaching aids. While 24.5 percent of the respondents disagreed and 12.2 percent of the respondents undecided on whether school heads’ roles on using teaching aids enhance teachers’ job performance.
Likewise 52.3 percent of the respondents disagreed with the statement that, school heads’ roles enhance teachers’ job performance on evaluation of teaching, while 38.9 percent agreed. However, 8.9 of respondents undecided with the statement that, the roles played by the school heads as human resource managers enhance teachers’ job performance on evaluation of teaching. Generally the findings of this study reveal that, school heads’ roles enhanced teachers’ job performance on areas which are lesson preparation and using teaching aids. The findings also indicated that, school heads roles did not enhance teachers’ job performance in areas such as classroom management and evaluation of teaching.

School heads as human resource managers are expected to carry out their roles to the highest extent so as to enhance teachers’ job performance in public secondary schools. This study found that, 45.6 percent of the respondents indicated that, school heads as human resource managers play their roles at the lowest extent. Furthermore, 36.7 percent of the participants demonstrated that, school heads as human resource managers carry out their roles to the highest extent with the intention of enhancing teachers’ job performance in public secondary schools. Similarly, 17.8 percent of the participants denoted that, school heads carry out their roles at the medium level. Therefore, it could be argued that, school heads do not play their roles effectively and efficiently. That is why; the extent of teachers in public secondary school to carry out their roles is very low. The inefficiencies of teachers to carry out their roles as expected triggers poor academic performance of students in public secondary schools.
In the interview the schools heads as human resource managers provided their views concerning the extent to which they carry out their roles in order to enhance teachers’ job performance in public secondary schools the head of school E elaborated that they have been carrying out different roles but to some extent they failed to carry them in the large extent because of different circumstances which hinder them for example in her school there is no enough school facilities like library, laboratories, classrooms, administration block, chairs compared with the number of students. She also added that sometimes she has been failing to play her roles as human resource manager because of being interfered by politician like Member of Parliament (MP), ward councilor and village chairman they have been making decision on some various school matters like building and buying some school infrastructures politically. (Head of school E, 16 march 2018).
Furthermore on the other interview conducted to the head of school B the school head claimed that for himself to the certain extent he has failed to exercise his roles to the large extent due to poor working environment because the school have no enough teachers houses, electricity, pure and fresh water, good roads which connect the school with main road and this problem have been affecting the attendance of teachers who are living far away from the school especially during the rainy season and he further added that financial problem which is caused by depending in only one source have been affecting the heads of schools to carry out their roles as human resource managers because sometimes they have been failing even to provide reward to the best teacher, the availability of enough teaching and learning materials like laboratory chemicals, textbooks due to little fund that the school earn from the government.
On the other hand the head of school B said that sometimes they have been failing to carry out their roles as human resource managers due to little power which are authorized to exercise by the government concerning various school matters so they claimed that the situation increase red tapes and lastly he conclude by saying that teachers indiscipline is among of the great challenge which retardate them to carry out their roles effectively and efficiently. (Head of school B march 16, 2018).
Therefore the general implication of the results is that the school heads as human resource managers carry out the roles to the low extent rather than high extent and this has been verified by the results of the findings because more than 46 percent of the participants showed that school heads in many public secondary schools carry out their roles to the low level while about 36 percent of the participants demonstrated that the heads of public secondary schools carry out their roles to the high extent so as to enhance teachers job performance in public secondary schools, not only that through the interview which was conducted to the school heads it show that many school heads in public secondary schools failure to carry out their roles due to the poor working environment where the schools are located.
4.7 Strategies to be Used by the School Heads as Human Resource Managers
Strategies to be used by the school heads as human resource managers in enhancing teachers’ job performance in public secondary schools are very important. It is due to the reason that, in the public secondary schools which were involved in this study, teachers do not carry out their duties effectively. Therefore, the researcher developed a fourth and last objective in order to investigate the strategies to be used by the school heads to enhance teachers’ job performance. In this regard researcher administered 90 questionnaires to teachers who were the participants of this study. Through questionnaires the participants were given the options to indicate “yes” whether they agree or “no” whether they disagree with the proposed strategies.

Table 6.
Shows Strategies to be Used by the School Heads to enhance teachers job performance (n=90)
Responses
Frequency/Percentage
Statements Yes
f (%) No
f (%) Total
f(%)
Creating safe and health working environment 56(62.2) 34(37.8) 90(100.0)
Maintaining proper communication 57(63.3) 33(36.7) 90(100.0)
Providing reward to the best teacher 55(61.1) 35(38.9) 90(100.0)
Facilitating teachers training and development 42(46.7) 48(53.3) 90(100.0)

Table 6 shows 62.2 percent of the respondents agreed that, schools heads should create safe and health working environment as a strategy of enhancing teachers’ job performance while 37.8 percent of the respondents disagreed. Therefore the findings show that, school heads should create safe and health working environment so as to encourage teachers to carry out their roles effectively. On the other hand, the findings of this study imply that, unhealthy working environment discourages teachers’ job performance.
Furthermore, 63.3 percent of the participants demonstrated that, the school heads in public secondary have to maintain proper communication while 36.7 percent of the respondents disagreed. So in this aspect the findings imply that, proper communication enhances teachers’ job performance. Not only that but also, 61.1 percent of the respondents demonstrated that, school heads should provide the reward to the best teacher. While 38.9 percent of the respondents disagreed. That means school heads should provide reward so as to enhance teachers job performance. Additionally, 46.7 percent of the participants proposed that, school heads have to facilitate teachers’ training and development so as enhancing teachers’ job performance. While 53.3 percent of the participants disagreed with the statement.

Additionally,

especially when they perform better in the national examination like form four and form six for example in school G once a student’s score grade C in any subject the teacher who is teaching that subject is awarded 5000/= thousands, grade B is 10000/= thousands and grade A is 15000/= thousands while 61.1 percent of the participants disagreed with the statement that school heads provide reward to the best teacher as a strategies of enhancing teachers job performance in public secondary schools.
Teachers who were the participants of this research study were given the room to add other strategies that their school heads as human resource managers in public secondary schools use in order to enhance their job performance as explained below
About 52.2 percent of the participants explained that most of the school heads in public secondary schools provide motivation to the teachers as a strategy of encouraging them to carry out their roles effectively and efficiently. Things that heads of public secondary schools provide to the teachers are like breakfast, afternoon meals and sometimes they used to prepare some events like get together part which they celebrate by eating and drinking some drink together. Therefore this has been encouraging teacher to work hard apart from being working in the poor and hard environment.
In addition to that, school heads as human resource managers in their working institutions have been involving teachers in making decision about different school matters as a strategy of enhancing teachers to carry out their roles effectively about 61.1 percent of the participants demonstrated that teachers in their schools have been involved in making decision through staff meeting which involve all teachers of the school concerned, furthermore teachers have been involved in making decision through their own subject department and other department like discipline department, environment, sports and game department and a like, in connection to that heads of public secondary schools have been involving teachers in making decision through school management team that is (SMT) which involve head of schools, second master/mistress of school, academic master and discipline matters, furthermore teachers have been involved in decision making through school board where by teachers are given an opportunity to have one representative in the school board meeting where different school matters are discussed and different procedures are taken.

In line with that, about 56 percent of the participants demonstrated that heads of public secondary schools use the strategies of exercising fairness to the teachers by ensuring equity so as to avoid classes among teachers and to make them happy with the work and later cause better academic performance of the school as a whole.
Through the interview which was conducted in school D the head of this school said that he sometimes used some strategies to enhance teachers job performance in his school such as providing an advice to the teachers where practice an ethical an ethical matters in the schools, if not working providing warning letter and if not working again is report some unethical matters to the District level to the office of TSC and using school board to worn teachers. He further added other strategy that is participating teachers in decision making about different school matters and ensuring allowance to the teachers so as to enhance them to work hard. (Heads of school D, 16 March 2018).
Generally the results indicate that school heads in public secondary schools to the large extent does not use much strategies for the purpose of enhancing teachers to carry out their roles effectively and efficiently. Because in many statements participants who agreed that school heads use a certain respective strategies found in the table were below 50% and those participants and those participants who agreed that school heads as human resource managers use a certain strategies with the aim of enhancing teachers job performance were more than 50%. Also through the chance which participants were given to add other strategies to some extent it show that school heads use motivation and involve teachers in making decision and a like as a strategies of enhancing teachers job performance.

CHAPTER FIVE
SUMMARY, DISCUSSION, CONCLUSIONS, AND RECOMMENDATIONS
5.1 Introduction
This study focused on assessing the roles of the school heads as human resource managers in enhancing teachers’ job performance in public secondary schools. This chapter presents the summary of the research findings, discussion and conclusion of the research findings, recommendations, limitations and recommendations for further study.
5.2 Summary of the Findings
This part presents the summary of the major research findings which were organized based on the specific objectives;-
Objective one focused on exploring the roles of the school heads as human resource managers in enhancing teachers’ job performance in public secondary schools. The findings of this study demonstrated that school heads as human resource managers in many public secondary schools does not carry out all roles equally for example in this research study participants demonstrated that school heads as human resource managers put much concentration on teaching supervision rather than other roles like encouraging team work, developing teachers’ career, creating safe working environment and encouraging discipline among teachers which are also very essential for enhancing teachers job performance in public secondary schools. The participants of this study also demonstrated other roles which were carried out by their school heads as human resource managers such as providing guidance and counseling; managing conflicts among teachers; making planning and placement of teachers; reshaping and developing school mission and vision; ensuring the availability of teaching materials; ensuring proper relationship between school and community; ensuring that teachers follow laws, rules and regulations; looking for different source of income; ensuring that teachers carry out all academic and non academic matters and guiding teachers to follow school calendar and time table.
The researcher of this study continued by determining teachers’ perception on the roles of the school heads as human resource managers in enhancing teachers’ job performance. There are some roles played by the school heads as human resource managers were perceived more positively and other were not perceived more positively by the participants of this research study. In addition to that the participants of this research study showed that roles like encouraging team work, creating safe working environment and teaching supervision enhance more teachers’ job performance in public secondary schools than other roles like developing teachers’ career.
Furthermore the researcher progressed by examining the extent to which school heads play the roles as human resource managers in enhancing teachers’ job performance. The expectation of many education stakeholders is to see that school heads carry out their roles as human resource managers accordingly in order to enhance teachers’ job performance in public secondary schools. In this research study the participants were given option to opt whether school heads as human resource managers carry out their roles to the high extent, medium extent and low extent, through that the findings of this study show that school heads as human resource managers carry out their roles to the low extent. This situation retardate the teachers’ morale hence poor school academic performance. Through the interview with the school heads many of them claimed that they have been carrying out their roles to the low level due to the fact that their schools lack enough facilities for example building, chairs, laboratory facilities, another challenge is poor working environment schools lack teachers’ houses, electricity, pure and fresh water; another claim from the school heads was that the government does not give them full authority and the last one is that school heads lack management skills for managing teachers.
Finally the study established the strategies used by the school heads as human resource managers in improving teachers’ job performance. School heads as human resource managers have been using different strategies so as to enhance teachers’ job performance in public secondary schools. Also these strategies have been encouraging teachers to work hard and to cope quickly with the school working environment. Therefore through this research study which the participants were given the chance to opt for YES if they agree with the statement and NO if they disagree with the statement, the findings show that school heads as human resource managers use the strategies to enhance teachers job performance but not to the high level because majority of participants of this research study opted for NO that school heads does not use various strategies in order to enhance teachers job performance while few of the participants opted for YES that school heads use the mentioned strategies to enhance teachers job performance in their schools that is to say school heads as human resource managers to the certain extent does not create safe and health working environment, maintain proper communication, provide reward to the best teachers and facilitating teachers training and developments.
In addition to that the participant of this research study were given the chance to show other strategies which their school heads as human resource managers use so as to enhance their job performance such as providing motivation to the teachers, involving teachers in decision making, enhancing peace and security, enhancing good relationship among teachers and exercising fairness to the teachers in public secondary schools.
5.3 Discussion and Conclusion of the Research Study
5.3.1 Roles of the School Heads as Human Resource Managers
Basing on the summary of the findings, the researcher of this study concluded that school heads as human resource managers in public secondary schools in Kwimba District did not carry out their roles effectively and efficiently. This situation affects general performance of teachers in many public secondary schools which result into poor students’ academic performance.
The results of this study match with the conceptual framework created by the researcher that the failure of the school heads to enhance team work, developing teachers’ career and teaching supervision which results to stagnation of teachers’ competences. Also, the failure of school heads in enhancing teachers’ discipline and creating safe working environment results into low teachers’ commitment, mobility, turnover and job dissatisfaction as well as low teaching morally and finally poor students’ academic achievement of the schools.
Furthermore the findings show that school heads as human resource managers do not encourage team work, developing teachers’ career, creating safe working environment and encouraging discipline among teachers. This has been discouraging teachers to work hard and later results into the failure of the school to realize the intended goals. This relates with what was revealed by Runhaar (2016) that human resource manager holds the potentials of increasing students’ outcomes through the increased involvement, empowerment and motivation of teachers. As far as the environment are concerned Ates and Artuner (2013) explained that the main duties of the school managers are to develop the learning environment at school and to ensure the development of teaching method for teachers.
In addition to that, the findings of this study also indicated that the only role played by the school heads effectively is teaching supervision. It is true that teachers are hired to teach but in order for them to teach well they require teaching supervision from their from their school heads. This is contrary with Manaseh (2016) whose in his study revealed that instructional programs were not effectively managed as a head of department were not involved in the curriculum coordination, syllabus was not covered on time and the school heads did not undertake classroom observations in review of curriculum materials. In the other hand the findings meant that school heads were not very much involved in teaching supervision by reviewing various teaching materials such as scheme of work, lesson plans, record of work covered, students’ lesson notes and teachers class attendance.
Not only that but also, this study identified other roles which to a certain level are carried out by the school heads as human resource managers such as providing guidance and counseling, managing conflicts among teachers,
Through the research findings school heads play the roles of planning and placement of teachers, therefore in many schools principals are entitled to distribute different roles to the teachers depending on the knowledge, skills and experience that each teacher as an individual have. Not only that but also school heads play the role of recommending teachers for further studies and attending some seminars and workshop. This also match with Muthon (2015) who conducted the study on the effectiveness of secondary school principals in management of human resource in Kenya, revealed that head of schools deals with executing the roles of human resource managers which include human resource planning, induction and training. Reshaping, developing school mission and vision to some level was seen to be carried out by the school heads. That means school development to a certain level depended on the managerial strategies that were employed by the school heads. This also was revealed by Cruz, Villena, Belecina and Garvida (2016) who conducted the study on enhancing the managerial performance of school heads in Cavite division in Philippine. That the level of managerial performance of secondary school heads is very satisfactory in different areas of school management vision, mission and goals. that the participant that this is similar ensuring the availability of teaching materials. Ensuring that teachers follow guideline and regulations, looking for different source of income, ensuring that teachers follow school calendar and time table. School heads as human resource managers are required to carry out those roles effectively so as to increase teaching morale, to enhance the responsibility spirit to teachers and to reduce teachers’ mobility and later to increase the academic performance of the schools.
5.3.2 2 Teachers’ Perception on the Roles of the School Heads as Human Resource Managers
Basing on the summary of the findings of the research study it was concluded that roles played by the school heads as human resource managers such encouraging team, creating safe working environment and teaching supervision seems to enhance teachers’ job performance in public secondary schools in Kwimba district than other roles.
Many public secondary schools in Kwimba District have poor working environment, there is no team work among teachers and school heads as human resource managers seems to put much concentration on teaching supervision only. Therefore, school heads in public secondary schools need to put much effort on creating safe working environment, and encouraging team work among teachers so as to encourage them to work hard in order to enhance the general academic performance. This relates with what was revealed by Emily (2015) in his research study that identified that for an organization to have prosperity human resource professionals must develop team work, communication, strategic planning and network building. Not only that but also this was revealed in the system theory which insists on mutual interdependence of the parts (Cornell and Jude, 2015). That is to say organizations such as schools in order to achieve its intended goals need collaborative work and proper communication of teachers.
5.2.3 The Extent to which School Heads Play the Roles as Human Resource Managers
Basing on the summary of the findings it was concluded that many school heads as human resource managers in public secondary schools in Kwimba District have failed to play their roles to the highest extent because of unfavorable working environment. This findings match with Qutoshi and Khaki (2014) study which identified that the disabling factors for the school heads to carry out their roles include lack of financial resources, teachers turnover and resource managements. That is to say it is difficult for the school heads as human resource managers to carry out their roles to the high extent without having enough financial resources, without having enough teachers and poor resource management.
Additionally, many public secondary schools in kwimba District had poor academic performance due to the fact that, most of the school heads failed to increase teachers working morale by creating conducive teaching environment and enhancing team work and enabling teachers to develop their career to the high extent. This relates to Nakpodia (2010) who conducted the study on human resource management in school administration in Delta Nigeria that, the performances of human resource have considerable effects on students’ academic performance. This was due to little financial resources which are provided by the government, lack of full authority from the government, lack of enough facilities for example building, chairs and laboratory facilities. Another challenge was that, schools lack enough teachers’ houses, electricity, pure and fresh water. Also respondents another claim from the school heads was that the government does not give them enough money to run the school,
From the findings it was denoted that school heads had no enough authority of controlling the school, which means they lack power to give order to the teachers about various school affairs. Likewise Khalil and Munir (2016) in their study on secondary schools teachers’ perception of their principal’s leadership behavior and their academic performance at secondary school level in Lahore-Pakistan who identified that public school leaders are not empowered they are bound to follow the central directive, they also can’t offer performance based incentives to their teachers.
Furthermore the study revealed that, many school heads lack seminars and some managerial training which could help them to manage the schools toward the attainment of the intended goals. This also concur with Bouchamma, Basque, Marcotte (2014) who conducted the study on the school management competencies: perception and self-efficacy beliefs of school principals in Canada, documented that school principals whose professional development activities consisted of conventions and seminars also felt a greater sense of personal efficacy. This in line with what was identified, Peace, Obiageli and Ndidi (2013) in their study on managerial skills and enhancement strategies of secondary school principals in Nigeria who identified that many principals did not possess the managerial skills for effective management of secondary schools for national transformation.
According to the nature of our country it is difficult to see public secondary school which has each and every thing, therefore school heads need to be creative and innovative so that some claims they can solve by themselves for example the issue like financial school heads are allowed to make fund raising and to establish income generating projects like farms, livestock keeping, vegetable garden and a like in their schools. This will reduce the financial scarcity of the school. This also is supported by human relation theory which was propounded by Elton Mayo in the early 1920s which emphasize on clear understanding of the importance of human attitude, capacity and ability in terms of organization effectiveness.
5.3.4 Strategies Used by the School Heads as Human Resource Managers
The summary of this finding reveal that school heads as human resource managers to the low level use different strategies to enhance teachers’ job performance in public secondary schools. Strategies such as creating safe and health working environment, maintaining proper communication, providing reward to the best teachers and facilitating teachers training and development, were not employed very much by the school heads in many public secondary schools.
In many public secondary schools, school heads as human resource managers did not create safe and health working environment as a technique for influencing teachers to cope with the working environment and later to boost the general achievement of the school goals. Different findings from Qutoshi and Khaki (2014) who conducted the study in Karachi-Pakistan on the roles of principals in school improvement and identified that head teacher perform her best to improve better education to the learners by improving teaching and learning environment but there are some disabling factors like lack of financial resources and resource management.
Through the study findings it was also revealed that school leaders do not maintain proper communication in their institutions. But in order for any institution to reach the targeted goals there must be proper communication between employees, different department because they depend each other. So this relate with Sanduleac and Capatina (2016) who conceptualized that communication is powerful catalyst for establishing and sustaining trust, the emotional state that is shared by highly committed teachers and their leaders in the institution like schools actually was proper communication.

Furthermore although school heads were not interested to use reward as a strategies of enhancing teachers’ job performance but many secondary teachers claimed for it. That is to say reward seems to enhance teachers’ job performance in public secondary schools and later results into good students’ academic performance. This relates with Azi and Augustine (2016) who conceptualized that more workers’ rewards are the harder they would work, the greater the extent in which an employee’s needs are satisfied in his job, the greater the extent to which he would respond, presumably with gratitude.

Likewise the findings of this study also shows that school heads to some level use technique of facilitating teachers training and development so as to encourage teachers to perform better. Teachers training and development enhance teachers to increase skills, knowledge and competence for better job performance. This also match with what was revealed by Alami, Sohaei, Berneti, Younesi, Farnia and Mirzajani (2015) who conducted the study on the effectiveness of human resource management on improving the performance of education staff in Asia, that human resource management has an effect on effectiveness of employee’s performance in designing and implementing training programs of development of human resources. This is similar to Azi and Augustine (2016) in their study demonstrated that, Enhancing job satisfaction and encouraging teachers to go for in service training will lead to the transformation of the education sector. So this would equip the teachers as they will acquire more knowledge (Azi & Augustine, 2016, p. 37).
Regarding the research findings it was real revealed that some schools heads in Kwimba provide breakfast and launch to their teachers as motivation for them to work hard toward the attainment of the school goals. This is similar to Apolline (2015) in his study on the motivational strategies used by principals in the management of secondary schools in Fako Division in Cameroon, who identified that motivation as a strategy is significant in the teaching-learning process and is positively related to the teaching/ learning process. In addition to that, Musa (2014) in his study on the roles of the school leadership in motivating teachers in Ilala, documented that schools based factors leading to teacher motivation, parent involvement in school issues and learners discipline.
Not only that but also principals leadership style have a big effect on teachers job performance, for example through the research findings in was seen that school heads employ democratic leadership style by involving teachers in decision making over different school matters. This was also documented by Kiboss and Jemiryott (2014) who conducted the study on the relationship between principals’ leadership style and secondary schools teachers’ job satisfaction in Nandi Kenya, that principals’ leadership styles have a great impact on the working atmosphere in school and consequently the teachers’ job satisfaction.
As it was identified in this study that school leaders as human resource managers to a certain level had been enhancing peace and security, enhancing good relationship among teachers, exercising fairness as a strategies of encouraging them to have high working spirit in their teaching public secondary schools. Simirarly to Kiboss and Jemiryott (2014) in their study recommended that principals need to establish a pleasant teaching and learning climate in their schools.
5.4 Recommendations
The roles played by the school heads as human resource managers in enhancing teachers’ job performance in public secondary schools are very crucial for academic achievement of any secondary schools. Despite of its importance school heads as human resource managers still fail to carry out some roles effectively and efficiently. In that case the following recommendations were suggested.
(i) Policy makers should reset the policies of fee free education of 2016 which confuse many education stake holders. Like parents and school heads are confused because the policy does not state clearly whether parents are allowed to contribute anything for their children in schools and whether those school heads are permitted to collect those contribution from the parents.
(ii) The ministry of education science technology and vocational training should build the tendency of providing the seminars and special training workshops to the school heads so as to enhance management skills.
(iii) The government should increase the financial budget in public secondary schools which will enable the school heads as human resource managers to enhance teachers’ job performance by improving the teaching environment through building classes, library, laboratory, teachers’ houses and administration block and providing reward to the best teachers.
(iv) Similarly to that the government also should enable the school heads as human resource managers to carry out their roles by avoiding politics in different matters which are very crucial for the prosperity of the school.
(v) School heads should create the tendency of looking different source of income by preparing fund raising and establishing income generating project so as to get income which will be used for recurrent and development expenditure for the schools.
(vi) Teachers should have the behavior of reviewing rules and principle which guide their professionalism. This will help them to reduce some mistakes which can pull back their working performance.
5.5 Suggestions for Further Studies
The researcher recommended further study to be conducted to explore other factors that can enhance teachers’ job performance in public secondary schools.
Another study should be conducted in another district to assess the roles of the school heads as human resource managers in enhancing teachers’ job performance in public secondary schools.
Another study should be conducted to look on the challenges facing school heads as human resource managers in carrying out their roles.

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APPENDICES
APPENDEX 1
QUESTIONNAIRE FOR PUBLIC SECONDARY TEACHERS
I am Ngulo Brown a student of St. Augustine University of Tanzania in Mwanza Campus. I am pursuing a Master degree in Education Management and Planning. I kindly request you to fill this questionnaire that will help me to write my research study on “The roles of school heads of school heads as human resource manager in enhancing teachers’ job performance in public secondary schools in Kwimba District.
PART ONE. DEMOGRAPHIC INFORMATION
Instructions: Put a mark of tick ? in the box provided in your favorable choice.
a. What is your gender?
1. Male ( )
2. Female ( )
b. What is your age? :
1. 21-30 years ( ) 2. 31-40 years ( )
3. 41-50 years ( ) 4. 51 years and above ( )
c. What is your highest education qualification?
1 Diploma ( ) 2. Bachelor ( )
3. Masters ( )

d. What is your work experience?
1. Less than 1 year ( ) 2. 1-10 years ( )
3. 11-20 years ( ) 4. 21-30 years and above ( )
PART B
1. Is your school heads as human resource manager carry out the following roles?
Put a tick ? to show your answer in the column below:-
Key: 1=Almost never, 2= Seldom, 3= Sometimes, 4= Frequently and 5= Almost always
S/N Roles of school heads as human resource manager 1 2 3 4 5
i Encouraging team work
ii Developing teachers’ career
iii Creating safe working environment
iv Teaching supervision
V Encouraging discipline among teachers

2. Please add any other roles played by your school head as human resource manager in enhancing teachers’ job performance
i. ……………………………………………………………………….
ii. ……………………………………………………………………….
iii. ……………………………………………………………………………
iv. ……………………………………………………………………….

3. In which levels do you perceive the roles played by your school head as human resource manager in enhancing teachers’ job performance?
Please put a tick (V) in the number that fits or does not fit the level of your perception. The scale ranges between 1= Lowest level, 2=Medium level and 3=Highest level.

S/N The roles of school head as human resource manager

Responses
1 2 3
i Encouraging team work
ii Developing teachers’ career
iii Creating safe working environment
iv Teaching supervision
V Encouraging discipline among teachers

4. To what extent do your school head’s roles as human resource manager enhance your job performance?
Put a tick to show the extent to which you agree or disagree as to whether your school head enhances job performance in the areas as indicated in the table below.
Key: 1=Strongly Disagree (SD), 2=Disagree (DS) 3=Undecided (UD), 4=Agree (AG) and 5=Strongly Agree (SA).
The school head enhances me in 1 2 3 4 5
SD DS UD AG SA
i Lesson preparation
ii Classroom management
iii Using teaching aids
iv Evaluation of teaching

5. According to your work experience do you think your school heads as human resource manager use the following strategies in enhancing teachers’ job performance?
Put “YES” to the strategies that your school head use and put “NO” to the strategies that your school head does not use.
S/N Strategies
i Creating safe and health working environment
ii Maintaining proper communication
iii Providing reward to the best teacher
iv Facilitating teachers training and development
6. Please give other three strategies that can be employed by your school head so as to enhance your job performance
i. ………………………………………………………………………………
ii. ………………………………………………………………………………
iii. ………………………………………………………………………………

APPENDIX II

INTERVIEW GUIDE FOR THE HEAD OF SCHOOLS

1. What roles do you play in order to ensure that your teachers perform their duties as scheduled?
2.
3. In your opinion, what do you think should be done to enhance teachers’ job performance in this school?

APPENDIX III
CONSENTFORM
RESEARCH TITLE: The Roles of the School Heads as Human Resource Managers in Enhancing Teachers’ Job Performance in Public Secondary Schools in Kwimba District
RESEARCHER’S NAME: Ngulo Brown
PARTICIPANT’S NAME……………………………………………

I…………………………………… Declare that I am not forced by the researcher to participate in this study. I announce that I am participating from my own will. I understand that the data collected will be used for the study’s purpose only and I consent for the data to be used for this study.

……………………….. …………… ………………… ……………..
Researcher’s signature Date Participant’s signature Date

APPENDEX IV: TIME SCHEDULE
Activity 2017 2018
J F M A M J J A S O N D J F M A M J J A S O
Proposal development and submission
Data collection and analysis
Report writing, presentation and submission

APPENDIX V: BUDGET
S/N EXPENDITURE COSTS (TShs
1 Transport charges 500,000
2 Meals and accommodation 1,200,000
3 stationeries 1,150,000
Total – 2,850,000

APPENDIX VI
PERMISSION FOR MASTERS’ STUDENTS TOP ACCESS FROM YOUR INSTITUTIONS

APPENDIX VII
RESEARCH PERMISSION FROM REGIONAL ADMINISTRATIVE SECRETARY

APPENDIX VIII
KIBALI CHA KUFANYA UTAFITI MWL. BROWN NGULO