Power is generated by mechanical conversion of energy into electricity through a turbine, at a usually high efficiency rate. Depending in the volume of water discharged and height of fall, hydro power can be large or small.
2.5.6 Biomass Energy Resources Potentials
Biomass refers to energy derivable from sources of plant origin such as trees, grultes, agricultural crops, and their derivatives, as well as animal wastes. As an energy resources, biomass may be used as solid fuel, or converted through gaseous forms for the generation of electric power heat or fuel motive power (S.A Sambo, 2009).
It is a common knowledge that the associated harmful environmental health and social effect with the use of traditional biomass (wood fuel) and fossil fuels has enhanced the global growing interest in the search for alternate cleaner source of energy. Nigeria depends heavily on wood fuel as a source of fuel for most of her domestic energy needs, contributing over 50% of the primary energy supple with crude oil and hydro power constituting the remainder (Omakaro, 2008; Nwofe, 2014).
Biomass resources are considered renewable as they are naturally occurring and when properly managed, may be harvested without significant depletion. Biomass resources available in the country includes, fuel wood, agricultural waste and crop residue, sawdust and wood sharings, animals dung / poultry droppings, industrial effluents / municipal solid waste.
The availability of biomass resources follows the same pattern as the nation’s vegetation. The rain forest in the south generates the highest quality of woody biomass while the guinea savannah vegetation of the north central region generates more crops residues than the Sudan and Sahel savannah zones. Industrial effluent such as sugar cane molasses is located with the process with which they are associated. Municipal wastes are generated in the high-density urban areas. Table 1.2 shows the estimated biomass resources in Nigeria. (S.A Sambo, 2009)
Table 2.2: Biomass Resources and the Estimated Quantities in Nigeria
Resources Quantity Energy Value
(Million tonnes) (‘000mJ)
Fuel wood 39.1 531.0
Agro waste 1.244 147.7
Sun Dust 1.8 31.433
Municipal Solid waste 4.075 –
In year 2000, national demand was estimated to be 39 million tones of fuel wood. About 95% of the total fuel wood consumption was used in household for cooking and for cottage industrial activities, such as for process cassava and oil seeds, which are closely related to house, hold activities. A small proportion of the fuel wood and charcoal consumption was used in the service sector.
About 350,000 hectares of forest and natural vegetation are lost annually due to various factors with a much lower afforestation rate of 50,000 hectares/ yr. past studies shows that national demand for traditional energy (mostly fuel wood and charcoal) is 39million tones per annum (about 37.4% of the total energy demand and the highest single share of all the energy forms). It is projected to increase to 91million tones by 2030 (world solar programme, 1996 – 2005).
The deforestation rate is expected to similarly increase if no special programme is put in place to discourage the use of fuel wood, promote the use of its alternatives and replenish through deliberate afforestation and fuel wood lots. The three store stove commonly used in the household have been developed locally by the ECN through its energy research centers at the University of Nigeria, Nsukka and Usumanu Dan Fodiyo University in Sokoto.
These stoves which could reduce fuel wood consumption for a particular process by 50% international Institute for Tropical Agriculture (IITA) Cottage cassava industry at Moniya, Ibadan adopted these technologies. Indeed the improved wood-burning stoves are found in many local markets in the north-western part of the country.
Agricultural residue and municipal solid waste Residues associated with agriculture either as on-the-farm crop wastes such as cornstalks or as processing waste such as rice husk, corn shells, palm kernel shell, cassava peels, etc. are also good sources of fuels. They are currently burned directly as starter or supplement materials in addition to fuel wood. These are potentials for further processing higher energy contents. There is, however, other competing demand for crop residues for feeding livestock and roofing thatched houses in the villages. Animal waste ( e.g Cow dung, poultry droppings and abattoir waste) are also available at specific sites (S.A Sambo 2009).
Biogas digester technology has been domesticated and a number of pilot biogas plants have been built. Considerable local capability exists for building both floating dome and fixed dome bio digesters using a variety of bio resources. Examples include a human waste biogas plants at the Zaria Prison, cow dung based biogas plants at the Fodder farm of the National Animal Product on Research Institute (NAPRI), Zaria and My flower Secondary School Ikenne, Ogun state; an 18m3 capacity pig waste biogas plant at the pigry farm of the Ojokoro / Ifelodun, cooperative Agricultural Multipurpose society in Lagos states.
A number of indigenous out fits are producing economically viable systems for converting municipal waste to energy (S.A Sambo, 2009).
Sawdust and wood waste are other important biogas resources associated with the lumbar industry. Small particle biomass stoves already exist for burning sawdust and wood sharing. Biomass utilization as energy resources is currently limited to thermal application as fuel for cooking, crop drying, tobacco curing, etc. there is no existing biomass fired power plant in Nigeria and so no local experience in biogas generation and utilization of fire particle biomass.
2.5.7 Available Biomass Energy in the State
Biomass generation is commonly obtained through anaerobic digestion of organic waste under certain conditions. Biomass has been proven to be a practicable and promising technology which has the potentials of generating clean energy on a large scale. The use of biomass material to generate biogas on a large scale is still yet to be available in the state.
i) Animal Waste
This consists of waste from animals found in abattoir, piggeries, poultries and cattle ranch. The droppings of these animals are rich in methane gas when condition in a digester. The droppings are mixed with vegetable waste and enough wasters at a specified temperature depending on the animal droppings. This will allow the digestion process to take place within 2 – 4wkj. The process requires continuous stirring. The bye product from the process can also be called biogas.
ii) Bio fuels
Bio ethanol: this is a form of bio fuel that can be compared with the usual premium motor spirit (PMS) otherwise called petrol. It has lets of properties which can be compared with PMS. It is used on cars in Brazil in ratio with pms. The feed stock for bio ethanol includes all crops with sugar content such as maize, sorghum, sugar cane etc.
The process simply is conversion through fermentation process.
Bio diesel: This is a form of bio fuel that can be compared with Automatic Gas Oil (AGO) otherwise called diesel. It has lots of properties comparable with AGO. It is used for cars, trucks in big farms, generators and small power plants for rural communities. The feed stock for bio diesel includes most crops with oil contents such as; peanut, soya seed, sun flower, jatropha, safflower, palm oil and waste oil from food industries. Internationally, there are lots of debate and controversy on generating oil using food crops and also the issues of competition for land. Hence, Nigeria is currently not in support for using food crops for production of bio fuels. The feed stock considered for bio diesel for bio ethanol is the waste from sugar cane and cassava or stem of the sweet sorghum while jatropha seed and sunflower have been identified as the preferable feed stock for bio diesel. Jatropha curcus is a drought-resistant perennial, growing well in marginal / poor soil. It is easy to establish, grows relatively quickly and producing seed for 50 years. Jatropha the wonder plant produces seeds with an oil content of 37%. The oil can be combusted as fuel without being refined. It burns with clear smoke-free flame, tested successfully as fuel for simple diesel engine. The by products are press cake-a good organic fertilizer.
i. This vegetable oil can be used as it is busted ie unrefined in the engine of cars.
ii. This vegetable oil can be blended with normal diesel and used in cars.
iii. This vegetable oil can be refined and sild as pure diesel.
iv. Refined oil can be exported as a clean fuel to anywhere in the world.
Wind energy is the by product of solar energy, available in the Form of the kinetic energy of air. Wind has been known to man as a natural source of mechanical power for long. The technology of wind power has evolved over this long period. Of the various renewable energy sources, wind energy has emerged as the most viable source of electrical power and is economically competitive with the conventional sources (Amin,2015)
The global electrical energy is rising and there is steady rise of the demand on power generation, transmission, distribution and utilization. The maximum extractable energy from the 0-100m layer of air has been estimated to be the order of 1012KWh/annum same order as hydroelectric potential (. Humada,2014).
This chapter deals with wind turbine and wind generation system. It also investigates a close loop control of wind generation system using fuzzy logic control.