Marcus Vitruvius Pollio-His contribution to the theory of Architecture was that he was the writer of the book De architectura or The Ten Books of Architecture in this time. He was an expert in ballistics and built a basilica (A place to worship, mostly a church) at Fanum Fortunae which is located in Umbria, Italy. His famous theories were that an architect should prioritize on the three central themes when designing a building; strength (firmitas), functionality (utilitas), and beauty (venustas).Leon Battista Alberti-He epitomized or the perfect example of the Renaissance man and the principal initiator of Renaissance art theory in his time up to now, and also developed his theory of region in Architecture. His first major treatise was the Della Pittura which was on the Renaissance period. And around 1452, his finished his last major treatise which was called De re Aedifecatoria.
Augustus Pugin-Though he was not the first British architect of the modern era that took a look at the medieval times to be inspired, he was attached to the Gothic worldview and took it to another level, and by this, he created one of Britain’s famous buildings like the Big Ben.John Ruskin-He wrote the book called The Stones of Venice which was an overview of the history of Venice, Italy. Also, he published an article which titled The Seven Lamps of Architecture. He breaks down the essence of the Gothic Revival into 7 lamps which are Sacrifice, Truth, Power, Beauty, Life, Memory, and Obedience.
But there isn’t a guide on how to make a building, but are the foundations on how to build it with integrity according to John Ruskin. Charles Rennie Mackintosh-He’s the father of the “Glasgow Style”, which the city Glasgow is on the west coast of Scotland. He was the architect that was responsible in the fabric of the buildings in the city and also its interior design’s detailed outputs.Viollet le Duc-Viollet le Duc was a writer. He writes about the rational architectural designs in terms of its theories and he connected it with the revivalism of the Romantic period and the 20th Century functionalism.
Viollet le Duc admired Gothic art consistently that led with the restoration of Saint-German-I’Auxerrios in 1838 and the medieval archaeologist. Also, his admiration with the Gothic art led to the restoration the La Madeleine, an abbey church, at Veselay.Gottfried Semper-His designs or his main works were the Opera House which was in Dresden in 1837-41 and was rebuilt in 1878, the Zurich Polytechnikum in 1854-64, and etc. He also wrote the book The Four Elements of Architecture and split up into four distinct elements which are the Hearth, the Roof, the Enclosure, and the Mound. Otto Wagner- He was considered as the founder of Modern European Architecture, and also an advocate of historicist architecture. One of his projects that transformed the Wagner’s era was the Austrian Postal Savings Bank that took nearly a decade to plan, design, and build in the early 20th Century.Constantin Lipsius-Constantin Lipsius is an expert in historicism and eclecticism which had a strong effect in the French Neo- Romanesque technique.
He also worked for a huge construction project which was the Lipsius BauCamillo Sitte-A theorist who shaped the development of urban construction planning and regulations in Europe and the founder of Modern Planning. Also an author of the book ‘City Planning according To Artistic Principles’.Louis Sullivan-He’s the father of the modern American architecture and gave beauty and taste of the early skyscrapers, and of course, foreshadowed modernism. And also he’s credited at the first School of Architecture in Chicago, which was employed in steel framed buildings clad in ornamental masonry.Ebenezer Howard-The founder of the Garden City Movement which depicts the utopian city from his view and to live one with nature. He also published the book “To-Morrow: A Peaceful Path to Real Reform”.
Adolf Loos-He was an influential theorist of the modern architecture. From the text Ornament and Crime which states that the smoothness and clear surfaces in contrast to the decorations of the fin de siècle and the modern aesthetic principles of the Vienna Secession that excels to his design Looshaus in Vienna.Walter Gropius-The founder of the Bauhaus School which is a seminal school in modern architecture, and also one of the pioneering masters of the modernist architecture.Ludwig Mies van der Rohe-Devloped modern architecture and is also one of the directors of Bauhaus School.
Also, he reprised the International Style of Architecture which became popular in the 1920s on Western Architecture.Le Corbusier-Le Corbusier was a renowned Swiss architect who manufactured and incorporated the functionality of the modern movement with that of the expression in a vivid way. He was also an innovator of modern architecture and led in the international technique.
Frank Lloyd Wright- Organic Architecture was developed by Frank Lloyd Wright which was an American style. This style displayed a beauty which is natural unlike traditional architecture in the past that was shown in Europe. Christopher Alexander-Christopher Alexander is a professor of archiecture who taught in the University of California, Berkley. He also wrote the books The Nature of Order: An Essay on the Art of Building and the Nature of the Universe in 2004.Rem Koolhaas-A Dutch architect that published a book S, M, X, XL with the collaboration with the Canadian graphic designer Bruce Mau.
The book contains the work of OMA (Office for Metropolitan Architecture; Architectural Firm) where young architects practice and influence on each other of their designs. And AMO which is the research agency of OMA that expands the knowledge on architectural work.Tom Wiscombe-Christopher Alexander is a professor of archiecture who taught in the University of California, Berkley. He also wrote the books The Nature of Order: An Essay on the Art of Building and the Nature of the Universe in 2004.References:Vitruvius on Architecture – The Education of the Architect. (n.d.
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Vézelay. Retrieved from https://www.britannica.com/place/VezelayBritannica, T. E. (2018, May 11). Gottfried Semper.
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encyclopedia.com/people/literature-and-arts/architecture-biographies/otto-wagnerMindel, L. F.
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pps.org/article/calexanderRem Koolhaas. (n.d.
). Retrieved from http://oma.eu/partners/rem-koolhaasBiography: Rem Koolhaas | The Pritzker Architecture Prize. (n.d.). Retrieved from https://www.
pritzkerprize.com/biography-rem-koolhaasRem Koolhaas – OMA / AMO | profile and works. (n.d.). Retrieved from https://www.inexhibit.com/architects-artists/rem-koolhaas-oma-amo-profile-works/Tom Wiscombe. (2018, July 03). Retrieved from https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Tom_WiscombeTom Wiscombe. (n.d.). Retrieved from https://sciarc.edu/people/faculty/tom-wiscombe