KENYATTA UNIVERSITY SCHOOL OF APPLIED HUMAN SCIENCES DEPARTMENT OF RECREATION MANAGEMENT AND EXERCISE SCIENCE HRS 032 MANAGEMENT OF ATHLETIC PROGRAMS WITH DISABILITIES BRUNO SORRE H267/16735/2017 LECTURER

KENYATTA UNIVERSITY
SCHOOL OF APPLIED HUMAN SCIENCES
DEPARTMENT OF RECREATION MANAGEMENT AND EXERCISE SCIENCE
HRS 032
MANAGEMENT OF ATHLETIC PROGRAMS WITH DISABILITIES
BRUNO SORRE
H267/16735/2017
LECTURER: DR.D.NJENGA
Question: Discuss the components of the Achievement-based Curriculum decision-making model and their contributions in the design and the implementation of an A.P.A program. In doing so, provide relevant local examples.

The Achievement-based Curriculum Model is a process that helps tutors and instructors in decision-making process for designing and implementing Adapted Physical Activities for persons with disabilities. It is a process that is designed to assist programs rather than a program in itself.

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The components of the ABC- model are sequential and follow in a step by step manner. The components of the ABC-model are:
1.Program Planning:
Here, those in charge of the program make decisions on the amount of content to be delivered to students, what content exactly is to be taught and when it is to be grasped by the intended learners. The instructors have to take into consideration the amount of time available to teach the content vis-à-vis the learning rate of the learners. In such a case, the instructor may need to give more time to physical instructions on how to perform the activities correctly.

2. Assessing:
This is the process of observing students on the content that is taught so as to understand their individual needs and gauge the progress. Assessing proceeds all teaching, as the instructor has to identify exactly what the learners of the physical activity know/skills they possess so as to also know what they need to be taught.

3. Implementation Planning:
Here, the instructor takes the role of designing instructional learning experiences based on assessed needs. After knowing what exactly they need, the instructor has to set the focal points that are needed to be impacted onto the students. It will also involve the allocation of time on various points that need to be taught for the physical activity.

4.Teaching:
This involves the management of the learning environment for students to achieve the content that has been outlined to be taught. It is defined mainly by the components that precede it, specifically the assessment and implementation planning components. It involves the tutor defining exactly what content it is to be taught involving the student’s current skills, and effective feedback to the students on what skills they excel at and what they still need to improve on. The instruction has to be dynamic to constantly asses the occurrences to maximize student learning.

5.Evaluation:
This involves two aspects of assessment; Student evaluation, whereby the tutor monitors and reports progress on objectives taught, and Program evaluation, where the effectiveness of instruction is gauged per the students’ level of grasping the physical skills taught and the extent to which the program planning component is followed and well implemented. It seeks to find out whether the teaching objectives have been achieved and within the set time duration.

An example of the ABC model in use, is in schools meant for children with special needs. In such cases, teachers who teach Physical Education (P.E) use the concepts to actively involve all the learners in physical activities. They use it to assess their physical disabilities and impairments, so as to properly plan the content to be taught and in what duration of time, how to implement it, the teaching methods and aids to be used and how to properly asses the gains of the lessons on the students and what exactly he/she has already learnt.

Summary:
Using this model, instructors are able to properly plan for A.P.A Programs for persons with disabilities by enabling them to effectively make step by step decisions in the entire process of teaching skills to such persons. This in turn allows learners to fully grasp the concepts needed to be taught and be effectively assessed by the instructors. On the other hand, instructors are also able to plan their teaching and assessment to effectively pass on the necessary skills required for APA programs.