D

D. Palmer and C. Ferris investigated the evidence about the impact of different types of parking measures and policies on road traffic, congestion and transport safety, car ownership, on the level of carbon emissions from transport, on the activity of businesses, and on townscapes. Purposes of this research, the policies and measures considered included pricing about levels, structure and relationship with characteristics of vehicle or user, changes in the supply and location of on-street and off-street parking, Park and Ride (P&R), Workplace Parking Levy (WPL), controls on parking provision in new developments, and parking standards in new residential developments. According to the report regulating and managing parking space, using parking standards, is seen as a way of maintaining the balance between supply and demand, not only for parking, but also as a way of regulating the demand for road space. Parking may be limited by various means: these could include bans on on-street parking, or enabling on-street parking during certain time periods. Furthermore, land use planning controls might be used to restrict the numbers and locations of off-street parking places. In the report it is mentioned that, by reducing the market price of parking, minimum parking standards effectively offer subsidies and this in turn inflates the demand which is often used to set parking standards. the popularity of places where parking provision tends to be limited such as the historic towns, or older, central parts of cities highlight that ability to park is only one factor that people value about where they live, and other factors such as the quality of the environment or the availability of public transport may be more important in housing choice. In some cases, extensive parking provision is clearly at odds with generating a compact, walkable local network. According to the report it investigated how activity patterns, parking supply and transport demand measures interact to determine availability of parking space at destinations. Under this section, it is found problems caused when visiting a hospital, when going shopping and when they made trips for personal reasons (e.g. going to the bank or the doctor).