Counselling goals on Couple counselling Counsellor will assist the Darren and Dianne in identifying the issue that will be the focus of treatment

Counselling goals on Couple counselling
Counsellor will assist the Darren and Dianne in identifying the issue that will be the focus of treatment, establishing treatment goals and planning a structure for treatment. Counsellor would tell Darren about Couples therapy will usually begin with some standard interview questions regarding the history of the relationship as well as some exploration into each partner’s origin family, values and cultural background. Counsellor adapts the approach to Darren and Dianne’s needs using the most effective counselling approach tools to meet Darren’s concerns. It can set the stage for the couple to have a conscious relationship, for each partner begins to understand how he or she is contributing to the conflicts and how using a different communication style can lead to the joyful and harmonious relationship they both deserve. As the couple’s therapy is helps two people involved in a normal relationship gain insight into their relationship, resolve conflict and improve relationship satisfaction utilizing a variety of therapeutic interventions. The practice of couple’s therapy will focus on Darren gambling habits and couples’ thoughts and interaction in their relationship, counsellor find out the reality problem and main effect in this relationship.
Benefits on Couples Therapy
Change of views in the couple relationship.

Counsellor will lead client to find out the facts but not emotional thinking, to be more objective rather than blaming with each other.

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Modify dysfunctional interactions, restructure the interaction between couple’s thoughts
Assess with both of couples’ thoughts with common patterns and arguments during the session.

Work on each party with couples, arrange individual counselling session with them which aims to change their behaviors.

Organize the couple sessions with couples, consolidate their needs and goals setting to improve their relationship
Decrease emotional avoidance during the couple session.

Provide the couple with an understanding of therapy goals.

Find out couple’s expectations of couple counselling.

During the counselling session, couples will feel safe to express their points of view in a way rather than hear and focus on their situation.
Limitation on Couples Therapy
The couples may misunderstood a counsellor and expecting the counsellor to make a miracle and help them to make decision on their relationship.
Refuse to cooperate with counsellor and tell their truth thoughts with counsellor.

An evidence base on Couple counselling
ADDIN EN.CITE ;EndNote;;Cite AuthorYear=”1″;;Author;Halford;/Author;;Year;2012;/Year;;RecNum;92;/RecNum;;DisplayText;Halford et al. (2012);/DisplayText;;record;;rec-number;92;/rec-number;;foreign-keys;;key app=”EN” db-id=”5tfaap90y0vxdze0waevxwelva0dp2fz9tfx” timestamp=”1532786932″;92;/key;;/foreign-keys;;ref-type name=”Journal Article”;17;/ref-type;;contributors;;authors;;author;Halford, W. K.;/author;;author;Hayes, S.;/author;;author;Christensen, A.;/author;;author;Lambert, M.;/author;;author;Baucom, D. H.;/author;;author;Atkins, D. C.;/author;;/authors;;/contributors;;auth-address;University of Queensland, School of Psychology, McElWain Psychology Building, St. Lucia, Brisbane, QLD 4071 Australia. [email protected];/auth-address;;titles;;title;Toward making progress feedback an effective common factor in couple therapy;/title;;secondary-title;Behav Ther;/secondary-title;;/titles;;periodical;;full-title;Behav Ther;/full-title;;/periodical;;pages;49-60;/pages;;volume;43;/volume;;number;1;/number;;edition;2012/02/07;/edition;;keywords;;keyword;Adult;/keyword;;keyword;Couples Therapy/*methods</keyword><keyword>*Feedback, Psychological</keyword><keyword>Female</keyword><keyword>Humans</keyword><keyword>Male</keyword><keyword>Outcome Assessment (Health Care)</keyword><keyword>Stress, Psychological/*therapy</keyword></keywords><dates><year>2012</year><pub-dates><date>Mar</date></pub-dates></dates><isbn>1878-1888 (Electronic) 0005-7894 (Linking)</isbn><accession-num>22304878</accession-num><urls><related-urls><url>https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22304878</url></related-urls></urls><electronic-resource-num>10.1016/j.beth.2011.03.005</electronic-resource-num></record></Cite></EndNote>Halford et al. (2012) stated that there were changes in both couple relationship satisfaction and over servable behaviour evident in most couple in the first few session. This can improve the relationship between couples and support with each other after the couple counselling. Regarding on Darren’s gambling case, he may feel lonely or bad relationship with his wife. Couple counselling can provide a balance feeling, each of partner can be treat to equal, empathy and focus therapy for the client. As a result, counsellor will lead Darren to find out his drug abuse to be more objective rather than blaming with each other. Avoiding to have emotional thinking to blame his wife not to nags or never give him to support. Moreover, couple counselling including the session and the work on each party, arrange individual counselling session and couple session which aims to change their behaviors and decrease emotional avoidance during the couple session. There is an evidence that relationship satisfaction and observable behaviour has a positive outcome and the effect of couple counselling during the first few sessions and progress feedback on outcome ADDIN EN.CITE <EndNote><Cite><Author>Halford</Author><Year>2012</Year><RecNum>92</RecNum><DisplayText>(Halford et al., 2012)</DisplayText><record><rec-number>92</rec-number><foreign-keys><key app=”EN” db-id=”5tfaap90y0vxdze0waevxwelva0dp2fz9tfx” timestamp=”1532786932″>92</key></foreign-keys><ref-type name=”Journal Article”>17</ref-type><contributors><authors><author>Halford, W. K.</author><author>Hayes, S.</author><author>Christensen, A.</author><author>Lambert, M.</author><author>Baucom, D. H.</author><author>Atkins, D. C.</author></authors></contributors><auth-address>University of Queensland, School of Psychology, McElWain Psychology Building, St. Lucia, Brisbane, QLD 4071 Australia. [email protected]</auth-address><titles><title>Toward making progress feedback an effective common factor in couple therapy</title><secondary-title>Behav Ther</secondary-title></titles><periodical><full-title>Behav Ther</full-title></periodical><pages>49-60</pages><volume>43</volume><number>1</number><edition>2012/02/07</edition><keywords><keyword>Adult</keyword><keyword>Couples Therapy/*methods</keyword><keyword>*Feedback, Psychological</keyword><keyword>Female</keyword><keyword>Humans</keyword><keyword>Male</keyword><keyword>Outcome Assessment (Health Care)</keyword><keyword>Stress, Psychological/*therapy</keyword></keywords><dates><year>2012</year><pub-dates><date>Mar</date></pub-dates></dates><isbn>1878-1888 (Electronic) 0005-7894 (Linking)</isbn><accession-num>22304878</accession-num><urls><related-urls><url>https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22304878</url></related-urls></urls><electronic-resource-num>10.1016/j.beth.2011.03.005</electronic-resource-num></record></Cite></EndNote>(Halford et al., 2012).
Counselling goals on Family Therapy
Family therapy is a method of treatment that is designed to address specific issues affecting the health and functioning of a family. It can be used to help a family through a difficult period time, a major transition, or mental or behavioral health problems in family members. Therapy should begin with an assessment in which the entire family is interviewed and their patterns of behaviour are overserved. Family therapy allows families and their kids to begin healing in a safe and caring environment. In family therapy, Darren will be educated not only on their kid’s situation, provide a good environment and comfort place during their child growth and develop a healthy family. Darren have opportunity to express the difficulties of raising a struggling kids. In Darren case, counsellor will focus with whole family issues and also focus on his kids’ problems in school, find out the problem and any abnormal effect on their kids. As there are many difficulties between relations on Children’s behavior so that family therapy may suffer from original family’s behaviour and their values. Family therapy will adopt with genogram and every family members will scan about their habits and relationship. Family is a system in which each member had a role to play and rules to respect. Darren’s family members through this system are expected to respond to each other in a certain way according to their role, which is determined by relationship agreements. Within the boundaries of the system, patterns develop as certain family member’s behavior is caused by and causes other family member’s behaviors in predictable ways. Such as Darren and Dianne family tree and how to affect their kids Rochelle and Sam existing behaviour and school problem. Moreover, counsellor might use a cultural genogram enable the counsellor to acknowledge and perhaps make recourse to relational and spiritual support systems that are readily available. This education could provide valuable techniques, tools, and interventions that are culturally sensitive and strength based ADDIN EN.CITE <EndNote><Cite><Author>Lettenberger-Klein</Author><Year>2013</Year><RecNum>86</RecNum><DisplayText>(Lettenberger-Klein, Fish, &amp; Hecker, 2013)</DisplayText><record><rec-number>86</rec-number><foreign-keys><key app=”EN” db-id=”5tfaap90y0vxdze0waevxwelva0dp2fz9tfx” timestamp=”1532168219″>86</key></foreign-keys><ref-type name=”Journal Article”>17</ref-type><contributors><authors><author>Lettenberger-Klein, Cassandra G.</author><author>Fish, Jessica N.</author><author>Hecker, Lorna L.</author></authors></contributors><titles><title>Cultural Competence When Working With American Indian Populations: A Couple and Family Therapist Perspective</title><secondary-title>The American Journal of Family Therapy</secondary-title></titles><periodical><full-title>The American Journal of Family Therapy</full-title></periodical><pages>148-159</pages><volume>41</volume><number>2</number><keywords><keyword>Family Therapists</keyword><keyword>American Indian People</keyword><keyword>Spirituality</keyword><keyword>Dropping Out</keyword><keyword>Gifts</keyword><keyword>Alaska Native People</keyword><keyword>Article</keyword></keywords><dates><year>2013</year></dates><publisher>Taylor &amp; Francis Group</publisher><isbn>0192-6187</isbn><urls></urls><electronic-resource-num>10.1080/01926187.2012.665273</electronic-resource-num></record></Cite></EndNote>(Lettenberger-Klein, Fish, & Hecker, 2013).
Benefits on Family Therapy
Improved the communications with family members.

Dealing with dysfunction interaction with client and family members.

Managing mental health conditions, family members who are dealing with an ongoing or chronic mental health condition can also benefit from family counselling.

Client and the family members can learn to listen more effectively, empathize more completely, and understand what they wants and needs in their family.
Family counselling can help to build up strengthen through over their family structures.

Family counselling can provide a safe place to learn how to support the family members with the problem.
Limitation on Family Therapy
Client and the family members doesn’t want to join the family counselling session.

Confidentiality on clients’ family members with each other or reject to meet with counsellor.

Withdraw the session when clients and their family members still in a bad relationship.

Difficult to make the appointment with some family members.

If the family members doesn’t want to have any changes in their mind and it’s difficult to improve the situation in family relationship.
An evidence base on Family therapy
ADDIN EN.CITE <EndNote><Cite AuthorYear=”1″><Author>Breunlin</Author><Year>2014</Year><RecNum>94</RecNum><DisplayText>Breunlin and Jacobsen (2014)</DisplayText><record><rec-number>94</rec-number><foreign-keys><key app=”EN” db-id=”5tfaap90y0vxdze0waevxwelva0dp2fz9tfx” timestamp=”1532794088″>94</key></foreign-keys><ref-type name=”Journal Article”>17</ref-type><contributors><authors><author>Breunlin, Douglas C.</author><author>Jacobsen, Elizabeth</author></authors></contributors><titles><title>Putting the “Family” Back Into Family Therapy</title><secondary-title>Family Process</secondary-title></titles><periodical><full-title>Family Process</full-title></periodical><pages>462-475</pages><volume>53</volume><number>3</number><keywords><keyword>Family Therapy</keyword><keyword>Whole Family Therapy</keyword><keyword>Relational Family Therapy</keyword><keyword>History Of Family Therapy</keyword><keyword>Postgraduate Training</keyword><keyword>Training</keyword><keyword>Terapia Familiar</keyword><keyword>Terapia Para Toda La Familia</keyword><keyword>Terapia Familiar Relacional</keyword><keyword>Historia</keyword><keyword>Práctica</keyword><keyword>Capacitación</keyword><keyword>??????</keyword><keyword>????????</keyword><keyword>?????????</keyword><keyword>??</keyword><keyword>??</keyword><keyword>??</keyword></keywords><dates><year>2014</year></dates><isbn>0014-7370</isbn><urls></urls><electronic-resource-num>10.1111/famp.12083</electronic-resource-num></record></Cite></EndNote>Breunlin and Jacobsen (2014) mentioned that the Whole Family Therapy “WFT” define it as having all family members participating in the therapy. That is a process of organizing from a whole family, meet with family members during the counselling session and maintaining agreements such like informed consent with all members. Each relationship is unique and deeply influenced by the personality, background and values of the couple. In the counselling session, they encounter difficulties and inconsistencies. Family therapy model is found to ignore many of the positive roles of family’s closeness and malfunctioned to an individual from collective cultures. Counsellor can design few individual session with Darren family, including Darren and Dianne’s growth history, discuss different cultural beliefs on them. In fact, counsellor would like to know more their value and how to teaching their kids. Counsellor may discuss with Rochelle’s about her thoughts, the reason that she has decided to move out the family and live with boyfriend. For Sam, counsellor discuss with Sam about Sam’s school life during the individual session.
Counselling goals on Group counselling for those with gambling concern
A group counselling module provides a challenging and supportive environment in which Darren can explore and discuss their concerns with peers and professionals. As they are came from same habits and it offers more than an individual perspective on issues and challenges for counsellor to find out the facts from multiple vantage points.

Counsellor can practice some ways of interacting as the trust and support received from the peer group make it easier to try out these new behaviors. Group counselling also provides Darren with the opportunities to receive and give help or feedback to their peers during the group counselling session. Counsellor can organize workshop with groups who wants to have conversation with the gambling peers group. In Darren case, he can enter at any time once the group is running and talking about recovery or any effects of gambling. Counsellor may track with problem gamblers peer groups who has personal experience of overcoming problem gambling. This kind of group therapy are structured discussions around a specific theme in the topic forum and listening whole of peer group voices and thoughts.
Benefits of Group Therapy
Provide a space to “be real” with others in an environment of safety and respect.

Allow clients to see how others spontaneously respond to them.

Provide clients with feedback about how others perceive them.

Enable clients to try out clients’ new behaviours and values.

Help clients begin to see their “usual” patterns of relating to people.

Help clients discover that they are not alone and listen other clients’ existing situation
Provide the opportunity to receive support and insight from others who might share similar experiences.
Help clients to begin to recognize their strengths and insights as they assist others in understanding themselves, thus enhancing their own self-esteem.

Limitation on Group Therapy
Not everyone focus well in a group session.

Confidentiality is more difficult to maintain as some clients doesn’t want to join the group counselling session.
It should be harder to build trust and safety with counsellor and some of clients may dismissed the group session.

Not enough time to deal with each client thoroughly in each session.

Some of group counsellor may have less control than in individual therapy.

Concerns with conformity and peer group pressures.

A disruptive client can affect more harm with other clients and release with negative effect.

An evidence base on Group Therapy
ADDIN EN.CITE <EndNote><Cite AuthorYear=”1″><Author>Raylu</Author><Year>2010</Year><RecNum>98</RecNum><DisplayText>Raylu (2010)</DisplayText><record><rec-number>98</rec-number><foreign-keys><key app=”EN” db-id=”5tfaap90y0vxdze0waevxwelva0dp2fz9tfx” timestamp=”1532879640″>98</key></foreign-keys><ref-type name=”Book”>6</ref-type><contributors><authors><author>Raylu, Namrata</author></authors><secondary-authors><author>Oei, Tian Po</author><author>Ebooks, Corporation</author></secondary-authors></contributors><titles><title>A Cognitive Behavioural Therapy Programme for Problem Gambling : Therapist Manual</title></titles><dates><year>2010</year></dates><pub-location>Hoboken</pub-location><publisher>Hoboken : Taylor &amp; Francis</publisher><urls></urls></record></Cite></EndNote>Raylu (2010) indicate that group therapy can use Cognitive Behaviourial Therapy (CBT) for the group treatment. That’s suitable for a short-term cognitive behavioural group treatment for pathological gamblers had an effect. Pathological gamblers who received treatment improved significantly according to the diagnostic criteria for pathological gambling immediately after the end of treatment. After few months of treatment, pathological gamblers who had received treatment spent less money on gambling, perceived fewer negative consequences of gambling, and the improvement in the diagnostic criteria for pathological gambling was still present. In Darren’s case, counsellor can adopt with group therapy and provide more information especially on gambling pathology at this stage. These are a great way of focusing on specific aspects of recovery, share their mind in the group session and talking with peer group each other ADDIN EN.CITE <EndNote><Cite><Author>Myrseth</Author><Year>2009</Year><RecNum>102</RecNum><DisplayText>(Myrseth, Litler, Stylen, &amp; Pallesen, 2009)</DisplayText><record><rec-number>102</rec-number><foreign-keys><key app=”EN” db-id=”5tfaap90y0vxdze0waevxwelva0dp2fz9tfx” timestamp=”1533479236″>102</key></foreign-keys><ref-type name=”Journal Article”>17</ref-type><contributors><authors><author>Myrseth, Helga</author><author>Litler, Irene</author><author>Stylen, Inge Jarl</author><author>Pallesen, Stle</author></authors></contributors><titles><title>A controlled study of the effect of cognitivebehavioural group therapy for pathological gamblers</title><secondary-title>Nordic Journal of Psychiatry, 2009, Vol.63(1), p.22-31</secondary-title></titles><periodical><full-title>Nordic Journal of Psychiatry, 2009, Vol.63(1), p.22-31</full-title></periodical><pages>22-31</pages><volume>63</volume><number>1</number><keywords><keyword>Original Articles</keyword></keywords><dates><year>2009</year></dates><publisher>UK: Informa UK Ltd</publisher><isbn>0803-9488</isbn><urls></urls><electronic-resource-num>10.1080/08039480802055139</electronic-resource-num></record></Cite></EndNote>(Myrseth, Litler, Stylen, & Pallesen, 2009).
Generic to all three counselling approaches
Attending Behaviour
Attending is the use of physical behaviors such as smiling, leaning forward, making eye contact, gesturing, and nodding to convey to clients that the counsellor is interested in and open to them.
For example:
Encourage the client to talk about himself/herself.

Counsellor let the client know is listening about their existing issues.

Empathy and no any criticism.
Closed Ended and Open-Ended Questions
Open-ended and probing questions invite more than one or two word responses. The questions can be used to gather information, increase clarity, stimulate thinking, or create discussion.

For example (Darren & Dianne):
Closed ended questions
Do you take drugs often?
Do you exercise?
Do you like your family?
Do you love your kids?
Do you love your hubby/wife?
Are you scared if the gambling still happened in the future?
Do you want have a change in coming future?
Open ended questions
What’s the existing problem in your situation?
What did you do when Dianne saying about “no support”?
What are the reason for saying on gambling?
What do you feel/ think that important to you?
Tell me about your family while you were growing up.

How do you feel right now?
Tell me about your relationship with your wife/husband.

Tell me about your relationship with your kids.

What’s do you feel if your relationship has been improved with your husband/wife after 3 months?
Empathizing
Empathizing is placing at the client’s situation focus to their objective and empathy that shows the counsellor to be non-judgmental, rational, and understanding the clients’ needs.
For example:
Client: I feel confused and no one really cares about me.
Counsellor: You feel sad because you feel that your family members didn’t cares about you.
Paraphrase
Paraphrasing takes what the client has said and restates it in a nonjudgmental way. It helps the client to know that the counsellor is aware of his or her perspective and has heard what has been said. Paraphrasing also corrects any misunderstanding between client and counsellor.

For example:
Client: I know it doesn’t help my depression to sit around or stay at home all day.

Counsellor: It sounds like you know you should avoid stay at home or sitting around all day to help your depression.

Reflective listening
Reflective listening involves repeating what a client has said, paraphrasing, displaying empathy, and reflecting back verbal and nonverbal feelings.
For example:
Feeling understand the clients feelings.

Express more feeling and negative feeling.

Manage the feeling and restructure with the client.

A collection of two or more paraphrases or reflections that condenses the client’s messages or the session.

To tie together multiple elements of client messages.

To identify a common theme or pattern during the conversation.

To interrupt excessive rambling.

To serve as a transition when changing topics.

Recall key content and affect messages with the client.

Identify patterns or themes in this situation.

Use an appropriate sentence stem and verbalize the summarization response.

Summarize
Assess the effectiveness of the summarization.

Schedule and set goals for next counselling session.

Summarize the session and expect result in next session.

Specific to each counselling approach
Couples therapy
Counsellor self-awareness with both couple.

Capacity to tolerate intensity during individual session and couple session.
Ability both to validate and to challenge.

Recognition that relationships are full of contradictions and different mind with two people in a relationship.

Understanding relationships in the context of cultural values and norms and dynamics of power and oppression.

Perceptions and concerns about difficulties.

Counsellor’s experiences, values, and feelings relating to couple relationships, including gender roles and expectations.

Dreams and aspirations counsellor has for his or her own relationship, family, and future.

Counsellor’s relationship Demonstrate neutrality and non-biased concern for both members of the couple.

Convey respect for the couple’s relationship.

Facilitate balanced participation of both partnership with his or her partner.

The therapist’s goal is to teach a method of communicating that allows couples to resolve their own issues during and after therapy.
Provide the couple with an understanding of the goals of therapy.

Develop trust with each client without alienating the other.

Set the boundaries of therapy so each will feel safe to express his or her point of view in a way the other can hear and understand, even though he or she may not agree.

Family therapy
Generic to family counselling approaches.

Family therapy must make a paradigm shift from an individual context to a systemic way of thinking ADDIN EN.CITE <EndNote><Cite><Author>Corey</Author><Year>2011</Year><RecNum>76</RecNum><DisplayText>(Corey, 2011)</DisplayText><record><rec-number>76</rec-number><foreign-keys><key app=”EN” db-id=”5tfaap90y0vxdze0waevxwelva0dp2fz9tfx” timestamp=”1525006831″>76</key></foreign-keys><ref-type name=”Book”>6</ref-type><contributors><authors><author>Corey, Gerald</author></authors><secondary-authors><author>Corey, Marianne Schneider</author><author>Callanan, Patrick</author></secondary-authors></contributors><titles><title>Issues and ethics in the helping professions</title></titles><edition>8th. ed.</edition><keywords><keyword>Psychotherapists — Professional ethics</keyword><keyword>Counselors — Professional ethics</keyword></keywords><dates><year>2011</year></dates><pub-location>Belmont, Calif.</pub-location><publisher>Belmont, Calif. : Brooks/Cole/Cengage</publisher><urls></urls></record></Cite></EndNote>(Corey, 2011).

Component of the training program include the study of systems theory an examination of family of origin and an emphasis on ethical and professional issues specific to working with couples and family ADDIN EN.CITE <EndNote><Cite><Author>Corey</Author><Year>2011</Year><RecNum>76</RecNum><DisplayText>(Corey, 2011)</DisplayText><record><rec-number>76</rec-number><foreign-keys><key app=”EN” db-id=”5tfaap90y0vxdze0waevxwelva0dp2fz9tfx” timestamp=”1525006831″>76</key></foreign-keys><ref-type name=”Book”>6</ref-type><contributors><authors><author>Corey, Gerald</author></authors><secondary-authors><author>Corey, Marianne Schneider</author><author>Callanan, Patrick</author></secondary-authors></contributors><titles><title>Issues and ethics in the helping professions</title></titles><edition>8th. ed.</edition><keywords><keyword>Psychotherapists — Professional ethics</keyword><keyword>Counselors — Professional ethics</keyword></keywords><dates><year>2011</year></dates><pub-location>Belmont, Calif.</pub-location><publisher>Belmont, Calif. : Brooks/Cole/Cengage</publisher><urls></urls></record></Cite></EndNote>(Corey, 2011).
Arrange the family members to join the counselling at the same session.

Treatment Plan with the client, sometimes the family members will suffer into another counselling session.
Restructuring the facts in family relationship.

Group therapy
Observation on group therapy.

Identify and use group themes, metaphors and group dynamics.

Understand way of working with transference and countertransference.

Use techniques to highlight themes emerging in the group.

Promote immediacy and the value of working in the here and now.

Assign in gambling session with different clients.

Join with other gambling clients which are come from different background.

Cultural issues for Darren’s case
Cultural counselling issues is defined as the counsellor’s acquisition of awareness, knowledge, and skills that are more responsive to all groups. As the cultural competence begins with learning about Darren’s own culture and his wife’s nationality but also the values, assumptions, and biases that has developed of all cultural influences ADDIN EN.CITE <EndNote><Cite><Author>Leung</Author><Year>2011</Year><RecNum>105</RecNum><DisplayText>(Leung, Moore, Karnilowicz, &amp; Lung, 2011)</DisplayText><record><rec-number>105</rec-number><foreign-keys><key app=”EN” db-id=”5tfaap90y0vxdze0waevxwelva0dp2fz9tfx” timestamp=”1534002156″>105</key></foreign-keys><ref-type name=”Journal Article”>17</ref-type><contributors><authors><author>Leung, Cynthia</author><author>Moore, Susan</author><author>Karnilowicz, Wally</author><author>Lung, C. L.</author></authors></contributors><titles><title>Romantic Relationships, Relationship Styles, Coping Strategies, and Psychological Distress among Chinese and Australian Young Adults</title><secondary-title>Social Development</secondary-title></titles><periodical><full-title>Social Development</full-title></periodical><pages>783-804</pages><volume>20</volume><number>4</number><keywords><keyword>Personal Relationships</keyword><keyword>Stress</keyword><keyword>Social Psychology</keyword><keyword>Young Adults</keyword></keywords><dates><year>2011</year></dates><pub-location>Oxford</pub-location><isbn>0961205X</isbn><urls></urls><electronic-resource-num>10.1111/j.1467-9507.2011.00616.x</electronic-resource-num></record></Cite></EndNote>(Leung, Moore, Karnilowicz, & Lung, 2011).
Counsellor can ride on Darren and Dianne’s different culture and thoughts on gambling habit. ADDIN EN.CITE <EndNote><Cite AuthorYear=”1″><Author>Latour</Author><Year>2009</Year><RecNum>107</RecNum><DisplayText>Latour, Sarrazit, Hendler, and Latour (2009)</DisplayText><record><rec-number>107</rec-number><foreign-keys><key app=”EN” db-id=”5tfaap90y0vxdze0waevxwelva0dp2fz9tfx” timestamp=”1534086437″>107</key></foreign-keys><ref-type name=”Journal Article”>17</ref-type><contributors><authors><author>Latour, Kathryn A.</author><author>Sarrazit, Franck</author><author>Hendler, Rom</author><author>Latour, Michael S.</author></authors></contributors><titles><title>Cracking the Cultural Code of Gambling</title><secondary-title>Cornell Hospitality Quarterly</secondary-title></titles><periodical><full-title>Cornell Hospitality Quarterly</full-title></periodical><pages>475-497</pages><volume>50</volume><number>4</number><keywords><keyword>Gambling</keyword><keyword>Childhood Memory Elicitation</keyword><keyword>Cross-Cultural Studies</keyword><keyword>Las Vegas</keyword><keyword>Macao</keyword><keyword>Economics</keyword></keywords><dates><year>2009</year></dates><pub-location>Los Angeles, CA</pub-location><isbn>1938-9655</isbn><urls></urls><electronic-resource-num>10.1177/1938965509345241</electronic-resource-num></record></Cite></EndNote>Latour, Sarrazit, Hendler, and Latour (2009) were reported that the Chinese are riskier gamblers and show greater illusion of control as compared to U.S. gamblers. It appears that the Chinese rate of problem gamblers may be higher than with other ethnicities (Lau and Ranyard 2005, as cited in Latour, Sarrazit, Hendler, Latour, 2009). So the cultural value between Asian and Anglo-Austrian mind may have some differences. Asian may treat as gambling like a tools to earn money but Anglo-Austrian may treat gambling as entertainment. In Darren case, gambling just like a leisure and entertainment in Dianne’s thoughts but Darren may treat gambling like an earn money tools. That’s maybe the main reason that Darren feels Dianne which is not care about her in their relationship. In fact, counsellor should have empathy to know couples’ mindset, listen the clients’ thoughts, to be neutral and no critical so that can improve the couple relationship.
ADDIN EN.CITE <EndNote><Cite AuthorYear=”1″><Author>Latour</Author><Year>2009</Year><RecNum>107</RecNum><DisplayText>Latour et al. (2009)</DisplayText><record><rec-number>107</rec-number><foreign-keys><key app=”EN” db-id=”5tfaap90y0vxdze0waevxwelva0dp2fz9tfx” timestamp=”1534086437″>107</key></foreign-keys><ref-type name=”Journal Article”>17</ref-type><contributors><authors><author>Latour, Kathryn A.</author><author>Sarrazit, Franck</author><author>Hendler, Rom</author><author>Latour, Michael S.</author></authors></contributors><titles><title>Cracking the Cultural Code of Gambling</title><secondary-title>Cornell Hospitality Quarterly</secondary-title></titles><periodical><full-title>Cornell Hospitality Quarterly</full-title></periodical><pages>475-497</pages><volume>50</volume><number>4</number><keywords><keyword>Gambling</keyword><keyword>Childhood Memory Elicitation</keyword><keyword>Cross-Cultural Studies</keyword><keyword>Las Vegas</keyword><keyword>Macao</keyword><keyword>Economics</keyword></keywords><dates><year>2009</year></dates><pub-location>Los Angeles, CA</pub-location><isbn>1938-9655</isbn><urls></urls><electronic-resource-num>10.1177/1938965509345241</electronic-resource-num></record></Cite></EndNote>Latour et al. (2009) stated that when comparing with Western countries and Asian countries involves the people tend to prefer independent relationships to others and to focus on their personal goals. In collectivistic cultures (like the People’s Republic of China), people tend to prefer interdependent relationships to others and to subordinate their personal goals to those of their family (Hofstede 1980, as cited in Latour, Sarrazit, Hendler, Latour, 2009).
In Darren case, counsellor may find out the difference between Asian and Anglo-Australian culture on their kids’ teaching method. Asian parents may focus on parental education, prefer focus on kids’ academic result but western parents may keep open mind that give their kids feel free to learn and freedom. Sam doing poorly in school, his father maybe worries on Sam’s academic result but his mother Dianne may keep open mind on his son, he can develop his strengthens such like as sports, music and other school activities rather than his academic results. In addition, Rochelle which is age 15 and spending a lot of time stay at her boyfriend’s house. Darren may feel Rochelle is too young to move her boyfriend’s house which Dianne’s mind may think that’s her normal life style because Rochelle age of 15 as well. In fact, Darren’s thoughts may much more conservative than Dianne in life style.
ADDIN EN.CITE <EndNote><Cite AuthorYear=”1″><Author>Bhat</Author><Year>2015</Year><RecNum>106</RecNum><DisplayText>Bhat (2015)</DisplayText><record><rec-number>106</rec-number><foreign-keys><key app=”EN” db-id=”5tfaap90y0vxdze0waevxwelva0dp2fz9tfx” timestamp=”1534002991″>106</key></foreign-keys><ref-type name=”Journal Article”>17</ref-type><contributors><authors><author>Bhat, Meenakshi</author></authors></contributors><titles><title>Social and cultural issues in genetic counselling.(Report)</title></titles><pages>217</pages><volume>40</volume><number>2</number><dates><year>2015</year></dates><isbn>0250-5991</isbn><urls></urls></record></Cite></EndNote>Bhat (2015) discussed that the cultural issues are wishing to convey that agree that how counsellors approach the motivation of clients whose backgrounds differ from their own in significant ways and central importance. Counsellors understand the nature between the client and counsellors’ relationship, the process of counseling itself. That’s respect for the client in different culture and background, act as an ethical modality for the counsellor.
In my point of view, the first step that counsellor should get to know about Darren’s and Dianne on their own culture, set as neutral on their value and get the possesses information between Darren & Dianne cultural thoughts and their core value. The cultural direction should be got from previous experiences, related research articles, relationships with people in various cultures. In fact, cultural differences with Darren and Dianne can request them to explain the meaning or importance of a particular experiences from their point of view can ensure a more culturally understanding. Counsellor should focus for each session with sufficient knowledge of the client’s cultural background. Counsellor can refer to their cultural difference and find out a balance to reduce their value conflict during the counselling sessions.
Key ethical issues for each modality
Key ethical issues on Couples Counselling
Couples who seek for couple counselling that face a crisis that makes it difficult for them to think about the ethical considerations that may affect the success of their treatment ADDIN EN.CITE <EndNote><Cite><Author>Johnson</Author><Year>2008</Year><RecNum>80</RecNum><DisplayText>(Johnson, 2008)</DisplayText><record><rec-number>80</rec-number><foreign-keys><key app=”EN” db-id=”5tfaap90y0vxdze0waevxwelva0dp2fz9tfx” timestamp=”1525181652″>80</key></foreign-keys><ref-type name=”Journal Article”>17</ref-type><contributors><authors><author>Johnson, Susan M</author></authors></contributors><titles><title>Emotionally focused couple therapy</title><secondary-title>Clinical handbook of couple therapy</secondary-title></titles><periodical><full-title>Clinical handbook of couple therapy</full-title></periodical><pages>107-137</pages><volume>4</volume><dates><year>2008</year></dates><urls></urls></record></Cite></EndNote>(Johnson, 2008). Refer to The ACA ethical standard involved is 3.4 (a) Confidentiality that informed consent is most important on couple counselling that protect the couples to keep privacy to tell themselves before individual session and couple session. In fact, counsellor should explain in details how confidentiality of information and details from clients will be maintained within the couple sessions. Refer to The ACA ethical standard involved is 3.1b Issues of Responsibility, counsellors have a responsibility to keep all client records safe and secure and should outline the treatment plan and obtain consent to proceed with the session.
Key ethical issues on Family therapy
Refer to PACFA (2017, 5c & d) Respect confidentiality, informed consent should be important on family therapy that protect whole family members before the counselling session. Informed consent is something that counsellors have to obtain from all family members. Counsellor are faced with unique ethical circumstances regarding confidentiality because the identified client is usually more than one person and some family member’s history and background ADDIN EN.CITE <EndNote><Cite><Author>Breunlin</Author><Year>2014</Year><RecNum>94</RecNum><DisplayText>(Breunlin &amp; Jacobsen, 2014)</DisplayText><record><rec-number>94</rec-number><foreign-keys><key app=”EN” db-id=”5tfaap90y0vxdze0waevxwelva0dp2fz9tfx” timestamp=”1532794088″>94</key></foreign-keys><ref-type name=”Journal Article”>17</ref-type><contributors><authors><author>Breunlin, Douglas C.</author><author>Jacobsen, Elizabeth</author></authors></contributors><titles><title>Putting the “Family” Back Into Family Therapy</title><secondary-title>Family Process</secondary-title></titles><periodical><full-title>Family Process</full-title></periodical><pages>462-475</pages><volume>53</volume><number>3</number><keywords><keyword>Family Therapy</keyword><keyword>Whole Family Therapy</keyword><keyword>Relational Family Therapy</keyword><keyword>History Of Family Therapy</keyword><keyword>Postgraduate Training</keyword><keyword>Training</keyword><keyword>Terapia Familiar</keyword><keyword>Terapia Para Toda La Familia</keyword><keyword>Terapia Familiar Relacional</keyword><keyword>Historia</keyword><keyword>Práctica</keyword><keyword>Capacitación</keyword><keyword>??????</keyword><keyword>????????</keyword><keyword>?????????</keyword><keyword>??</keyword><keyword>??</keyword><keyword>??</keyword></keywords><dates><year>2014</year></dates><isbn>0014-7370</isbn><urls></urls><electronic-resource-num>10.1111/famp.12083</electronic-resource-num></record></Cite></EndNote>(Breunlin & Jacobsen, 2014). Counsellor should be upfront with the client’s family from the beginning session of treatment and to inform them of their rights to confidentiality, and let them know that a counsellor may not disclose to other family members any information an individual family member might share in private meeting room. Refer to The ACA ethical standard involved is 3.1 Issues of Responsibility, counsellors have a responsibility to keep all family members records safe and secure.

Key ethical issues on Group therapy
Refer to PACFA (2017, 5e & f) Respect confidentiality, counsellor take into account their legal obligations and their clients’ rights under privacy legislation and any other legal requirements relating to privacy. Counsellor do not disclose personally identifiable and sensitive information about their clients and take steps to prevent unauthorised disclosure. Disclosure may be authorised in the following circumstances: by client consent; where there are risks to the safety of the client or the safety of a third party (except circumstances are serious enough to justify disclosure) or required by the law. Informed consent is extremely important when client is mandatory. Counsellor should obtain informed consent from all clients before the group counselling session. The counsellor becomes comprised because the incorporation of the client places limits on the direction of the sessions in the group. Confidentiality is the important for all group peers that protect with each other during the group therapy. Counsellor and the peer group members which are keep confidentiality and cannot disclose others clients’ private information with each other. Refer to The ACA ethical standard involved is 3.1e Issues of Responsibility, counsellors also have responsibilities to associated parties, any individual or organisation other than the client/s with whom the counsellor interacts in the course of rendering a counselling service, This is inclusive of but not limited to client’s’ relatives, friends, employees, employers, cares and guardians. These are the ethical issues including privacy and have protection in the group section.
References ADDIN EN.REFLIST
Bhat, M. (2015). Social and cultural issues in genetic counselling.(Report). 40(2), 217.
Breunlin, D. C., & Jacobsen, E. (2014). Putting the “Family” Back Into Family Therapy. Family Process, 53(3), 462-475. doi:10.1111/famp.12083
Corey, G. (2011). Issues and ethics in the helping professions (8th. ed. ed.). Belmont, Calif.: Belmont, Calif. : Brooks/Cole/Cengage.

Dandy, J., Durkin, K., Barber, B. L., & Houghton, S. (2015). Academic Expectations of Australian Students from Aboriginal, Asian and Anglo Backgrounds: Perspectives of Teachers, Trainee-Teachers and Students. International Journal of Disability, Development and Education, 62(1), 60-82. doi:10.1080/1034912X.2014.984591
Halford, W. K., Hayes, S., Christensen, A., Lambert, M., Baucom, D. H., & Atkins, D. C. (2012). Toward making progress feedback an effective common factor in couple therapy. Behav Ther, 43(1), 49-60. doi:10.1016/j.beth.2011.03.005
Johnson, S. M. (2008). Emotionally focused couple therapy. Clinical handbook of couple therapy, 4, 107-137.
Latour, K. A., Sarrazit, F., Hendler, R., & Latour, M. S. (2009). Cracking the Cultural Code of Gambling. Cornell Hospitality Quarterly, 50(4), 475-497. doi:10.1177/1938965509345241
Lettenberger-Klein, C. G., Fish, J. N., & Hecker, L. L. (2013). Cultural Competence When Working With American Indian Populations: A Couple and Family Therapist Perspective. The American Journal of Family Therapy, 41(2), 148-159. doi:10.1080/01926187.2012.665273
Leung, C., Moore, S., Karnilowicz, W., & Lung, C. L. (2011). Romantic Relationships, Relationship Styles, Coping Strategies, and Psychological Distress among Chinese and Australian Young Adults. Social Development, 20(4), 783-804. doi:10.1111/j.1467-9507.2011.00616.x
Myrseth, H., Litler, I., Stylen, I. J., & Pallesen, S. (2009). A controlled study of the effect of cognitivebehavioural group therapy for pathological gamblers. Nordic Journal of Psychiatry, 2009, Vol.63(1), p.22-31, 63(1), 22-31. doi:10.1080/08039480802055139
Raylu, N. (2010). A Cognitive Behavioural Therapy Programme for Problem Gambling : Therapist Manual. Hoboken: Hoboken : Taylor & Francis.

ADDIN EN.CITE <EndNote><Cite Hidden=”1″><Author>Dandy</Author><Year>2015</Year><RecNum>103</RecNum><record><rec-number>103</rec-number><foreign-keys><key app=”EN” db-id=”5tfaap90y0vxdze0waevxwelva0dp2fz9tfx” timestamp=”1534001648″>103</key></foreign-keys><ref-type name=”Journal Article”>17</ref-type><contributors><authors><author>Dandy, Justine</author><author>Durkin, Kevin</author><author>Barber, Bonnie L.</author><author>Houghton, Stephen</author></authors></contributors><titles><title>Academic Expectations of Australian Students from Aboriginal, Asian and Anglo Backgrounds: Perspectives of Teachers, Trainee-Teachers and Students</title><secondary-title>International Journal of Disability, Development and Education</secondary-title></titles><periodical><full-title>International Journal of Disability, Development and Education</full-title></periodical><pages>60-82</pages><volume>62</volume><number>1</number><keywords><keyword>Foreign Countries</keyword><keyword>Student Educational Objectives</keyword><keyword>Indigenous Populations</keyword><keyword>Academic Achievement</keyword><keyword>Achievement Gap</keyword><keyword>Ethnic Groups</keyword><keyword>Experienced Teachers</keyword><keyword>Preservice Teachers</keyword><keyword>Questionnaires</keyword><keyword>White Students</keyword><keyword>Cultural Differences</keyword><keyword>Teacher Expectations Of Students</keyword><keyword>Stereotypes</keyword><keyword>Secondary School Teachers</keyword><keyword>Middle School Students</keyword><keyword>Student Surveys</keyword><keyword>Teacher Surveys</keyword><keyword>Teacher Attitudes</keyword><keyword>Student Teacher Attitudes</keyword><keyword>Student Attitudes</keyword><keyword>Measures (Individuals)</keyword><keyword>Individual Differences</keyword><keyword>Cohort Analysis</keyword><keyword>Social Attitudes</keyword><keyword>Social Bias</keyword></keywords><dates><year>2015</year></dates><isbn>1034-912X</isbn><urls></urls><electronic-resource-num>10.1080/1034912X.2014.984591</electronic-resource-num></record></Cite></EndNote>