Chapter one 1

Chapter one
1.1 Background of the study
Travel & Tourism is a key sector for economic development and job creation throughout the world. In 2016, Travel & Tourism directly contributed US$2.3 trillion and 109 million jobs worldwide. Taking its wider indirect and induced impacts into account, the sector contributed US$7.6 trillion to the global economy and supported 292 million jobs in 2016. This was equal to 10.2% of the world’s GDP, and approximately 1 in 10 of all jobs (WTTC, 2017).
Tourism is responsible for a large share of the air and road traffic and consumption of energy (transportation, tourist infrastructure, etc.), adding further to the emissions of greenhouses gases and acidifying substances.
Tourists consume not only energy but several other local, non- renewable resources like water. The construction of hotels, swimming pools, golf courses, etc. exerts significant pressure on water resources, particularly in regions such as the Mediterranean where resources are scarce. Tourists typically consume around 300 liters of water and generate 180 liters of wastewater per day while in most cases, tourists consume more compared to local population.
Sustainable tourism pursues the goal of economic development without damage on biological and ecological resources. However, numerous case studies reveal the problem of unsustainable tourism which causes severe adverse environmental impacts induced by infrastructure development and tourists? demands, such as water and energy consumption, waste generation and so on. Therefore, a proper management system in the sector of tourism development is crucial.
Sustainable tourism planning means avoiding the tourism burden. Tourist destination may be burden by tourism in several respects and this burden is caused by the exteriorization of negative impacts of tourism. Negative impacts can show themselves in the natural, cultural, social and economic environment (Antousova, 2014).
In the sector of sustainable tourism, the role of GIS maybe crucial. GIS can be used for analysis, planning and monitoring of indicators, conflicts leading to the identification of optimum locations for tourism development. (Ulmasova, 2011).
The analysis of the carrying capacity is used in environmental planning to guide decisions about land use allocation. It is a basic technique, widely used to define the capability of an area to endure the maximum level of development from tourism, agriculture, industry and infrastructure. As there are differences between the activities, it is appropriate to define carrying capacity according to the specific uses. In this respect carrying capacity is site specific and use specific.
Tourism is a complex phenomenon involving besides its spatial dimension, social, economic and environmental implications. GIS is a technology capable of integrating various data sets both qualitative and quantitative in a single system (Bas Boers, 2007).
The benefits of using a GIS are obvious information about the area is always up to date. Instead of just displaying a map to the user, the software can incorporate pictures, sound, text, animation and video alongside. The combination of several media often results in a powerful and richer presentation of information and ideas to stimulate interest and enhance information retention.
With an implementation GIS, a local tourist information guide is created with powerful search and analysis functionality. Tourist data can be analyzed such as which tourist resort that are hot.
1.2 Statement of the Problem
The tourism industry has been identified as one of the key industries for driving economic development and economic transformation in developing countries.( Nongsiej. Et .al, 2017)) Although in recent years the number of tourists coming to Ethiopia, has increased rapidly and the development of tourism in the Ethiopia is at the fastest pace, its sustainability is questioning (yechale mehiret, 2011). Tourism in amhara region is in developing stage and the business is highly seasonal due to attraction type and weather condition of the area.
Simien Mountains National Park is one of the oldest NPs and is the only park of the country to be listed under world natural heritage by UNESCO due to its natural beauty. Though the park is rich in biodiversity it is listed among the most endangered heritages of the world. This is because of poor conservational effort done so far. Local communities in the park are aware of natural resources and its economic significance but effective mechanisms are not plotted to involve them in resource management and benefit sharing. Moreover, there are multitudes of challenges threatening the existence of exceptional resource values on which the park tourism is highly depended. Government and NGOs are using different approaches to hold the equilibrium between biodiversity of the park and local communities. GIS is among the approaches used in the park. As a result, this study described how GIS is used as a tool for caring capacity management and sustainable development in Simien Mountains National Park. In addition, conditions under which GIS is likely to be effective, efficient and sustainable compared with alternative approaches for conserving biodiversity are identified.
1.3 Objectives of the Study
The main objective of this study is to assess how GIS is used as a tool for tourism burden management and sustainable development in Simien Mountains National Park.
Specific objectives
The specific objectives of this study include;
1. To assess tourism burden in the park and local community.
2. To describe how GIS is used as a tool for tourism burden management in the park
3. To study how GIS application benefit the local community and contribute to sustainable development in the SMNP
1.4 Research Questions

1) How tourism burden in the park affect local community and the environment?
2) What is the use GIS by being as a tool for tourism burden management in the park?
3) How GIS application benefit the local community and contribute to sustainable development in the SMNP?
1.5 Scope of the Study
The scope of the study is limited to the role of GIS for tourism burden management and sustainable development. It is a case study on the Simien Mountains National park. GIS and tourism burden management, environmental protection issues and sustainable development and benefit sharing scheme are delimited to the study.

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1.6 Significance of the study
Obviously any research has one or two of the following significance which is adding knowledge and solving problem. This study also aim to create knowledge use of GIS for tourism burden management and its practice from global to local and by identifying its challenge and possible opportunity indicating possible recommendation on proper management to sustainable tourism development.
In this study, possible recommendations will be forwarded to maximize the positive benefits of GIS for SMNP, the study will have an immense significance to SMNP park management, other park management authorities, tourists, governmental and NGO structures, researchers and international conservancy organizations working in natural resource management.
In addition to this the study will be significant for both customers (tourist) and producer (local community) by assessing tourism burden will indicate possible solving mechanism by using GIS as a tool.
1.7 Definition of Key Terms
GIS: – geographical information system.
Tourist burden: – magnitude of negative impact of tourism in the area.
GDP: – grosses domestic product
Sustainable tourism: – a type of development which meets our needs today without compromising the ability of people in the future to meet their needs.

1.8 Structure of the Report
This research will be organized into five chapters. In the first chapter, background of the research area, followed by the problem Statement of the Problem, research questions and objectives to be achieved, significance, limitation and delimitation of the study; operational definition of terms and layout of the paper will present. In chapter two theories and post studies related to the study area and the frame of reference supported with literature review will present and thoroughly discussed.
On the third chapter the researcher plan to present and draws the methodological process of sampling, data collection and analysis. On the fourth chapter descriptive summary of the empirical data collected together with detailed analysis, results and discussion will present. Finally, chapter five discloses the overall summary, conclusion, recommendations and directions for further research.

Chapter two
Related literature review
“Tourism is a composite of activities, facilities, services and industries that deliver a travel experience, that is, transportation, accommodation, eating and drinking establishments, entertainment, recreation, historical and cultural experiences, destination attractions, shopping and other services available to travelers away from home.” (Christou, 2012)
Tourism is a complex phenomenon involving besides its spatial dimension, social, economic and environmental implications. GIS is a technology capable of integrating various data sets both qualitative and quantitative in a single system. (Bas Boers ; Stuart Cottrell, 2007)
Sustainable tourism pursues the goal of economic development without damage on biological and ecological resources. However, numerous case studies reveal the problem of unsustainable tourism which causes severe adverse environmental impacts induced by infrastructure development and tourists? demands, such as water and energy consumption, waste generation and so on. Therefore, a proper management system in the sector of tourism development is crucial (JOVANOVIC, 2018).
GIS, being a tool for data mapping and analysis, serves as an efficient and effective tool for managers to trace the dynamics, predict different scenarios and make appropriate decisions in tourism planning and implementation. It helps various stakeholders to decide on land use for tourism development, and becomes an integral part of spatial decision support systems in tourism business (Turk, M. U, 2013).

What is GIS?
GIS is a computer based powerful set of tools for collecting, storing, retrieving, mapping, analyzing, transforming and displaying spatial and non-spatial data from geographic world for a particular set of purposes that varies for each discipline(Dilip Kushwaha, 2009).
GIS also can be a valuable tool for investigating specific questions that pertain to tourism development including location, condition of the area, trends and changes, routing to and through the site, and patterns associated with resource use. (Dye ; Shaw, 2007)
GIS integrates hardware, software, and data for capturing, managing, analyzing, and displaying all forms of geographically referenced information.( Titilayo .O, 2007)
GIS is a computer based powerful set of tools for collecting, storing, retrieving, mapping, analyzing, transforming and displaying spatial and non-spatial data from geographic world for a particular set of purposes that varies for each discipline.
Geographic Information System (GIS) is an analytical tool, originated from Computer Aided design (CAD) helps to create maps at different scales in different projections with a database to generate new information and present it in different formats(Pallavi .U, 2014).
It also creates links between spatial and tabular data and find out spatial relationships between the features of maps. It helps to collect, store and integrate spatial data to analyses and present them as new information. It is considered as a powerful tool to perform these works.
Use of GIS in tourism
GIS, being a tool for data mapping and analysis, serves as an efficient and effective tool for managers to trace the dynamics, predict different scenarios and make appropriate decisions in tourism planning and implementation. It helps various stakeholders to decide on land use for tourism development, and becomes an integral part of spatial decision support systems in tourism business (Ulmasova, 2011).
On the contrary, through GIS, one can extract and use the different sets of information from a map. GIS is able to show a large amount of tourism information which is always up to date. The incredible role of GIS in tourism industry is defined by Semcor Company. “The concepts of time and place are ingrained in the tourism industry.
Having an understanding of your customer base and where they come from, and knowing what they want to see and do and how to get them there are essential to the success of any tourism operation. Whether you are a hotel manager, a diving instructor, or a government official, a GIS can provide you with the tools you need to better prospect, understand and serve the needs of your clients” (Semcor 2001).
GIS system in the tourism industry can answer a lot of questions about locations, conditions, modelling, trends etc. this questions are most likely very important for all the decisions that a tourist or an investor take in order to plan a trip or to make a tourist investment.
GIS provides the linkage between the spatial data and semantic information. It makes a combination between database operations and geographic analysis benefits that are offered by maps (Ake, 2001)
Tourism destinations are usually characterized by three different features: points, lines and polygons. Point features are individual tourist attractions (e.g. historical buildings, museums). Coastal beaches may represent linear patterns, while polygons may be characterized by natural parks. Also other GIS functions may help users to get appropriate results. Layering enables the user to add and remove certain features from map display. Querying and reclassification enable the user to adjust the map. Image for analysis Buffering enables to identify the areas of interest. Finally, data integration enables two different map layers of the same area to be laid one on the top of the other to form a new layer.
Before the users may use, GIS several procedures have to be done.
Janovi? (2007) adverted several procedures that enable the development of a spatial database such as:
Acquisition of graphical maps covering the region;
Converting the paper maps into digital maps;
Creation of topology to establish relations among the map features;
Transformation into real world coordinates.
Sustainable tourism development should be proposed and realized on the bases of monitoring its impacts, among them also tourism burden of a concrete region. Presented article deals with hiking and tourism burden in the protected landscape area

CHAPTER THREE
RESEARCH METHODOLOGY

3.1. Description of the Study Area
The SMNP is located at 885 km North West of Addis Ababa. It was formally established in 1966 and gazetted in 1969 after being recommended by the UNESCO mission in 1965. The park was established with the objective of conserving the rare and endemic Walia ibex. Due to its unique landscapes and rich biodiversity resources, the park was inscribed on the list of World Natural Heritage Site by UNESCO in 1978. The varied topography of the park offers a habitat to a wide range of animals and plants. Besides its endemic mammal species, more than 180 bird species of which six are endemic to the park.
Since the boundary demarcation and its establishment was done without the involvement and active participation of the local communities inhabiting both inside and border of the park, it had been not recognized and respected by the communities as a result of which a mass loss of the natural resources of the park had been happening in the past 35 years since its establishment (SMNP, 2009). However, in 2007 a re-demarcation was made with full participation of all the stakeholders including community representatives and the current area of the park is extended to 412 km2, which was 136 sq. km. in its establishment.
Currently the SMNP is stretched out between five woredas namely; Adiarkay, Beyeda, Debark, Janamora and Tselemt woredas and 38 kebeles are within it. There had been a significant administration shift to the park since its inception. Until 1996 the park was administered by the former EWCO. As the Agricultural Bureau of ANRS administered SMNP, the park is shaded with red color from the world heritage sites list by UNESCO in 1996. An autonomous body called PaDPA was established in 2003 to administer SMNP till the power is completely given to the federal responsible body EWCA in 2009.
Three different vegetation belts can be distinguished in the park (SMNP, 2009). The highest altitudinal belt is the afro-alpine steppe belt, found above 3700 m above sea level. The endemic plant species of giant Lobelia is found here. The next altitudinal belt situated between 3000 and 3700 m asl is named as the Ericaceous belt. The most prominent vegetation here is the giant Heath or Erica arborea (Center for Development and Environment, 2003). The lowest altitudinal belt inside the park, between 200 and 3000 m asl, is called the afro-montane forest belt. It is found at the bottom of the steep parts of the scarpment. This vegetation belt is characterized by the presense of Ethiopian Tid or Juniperus procera (Center for Development and Environment, 2003).

Map of the site
Source Google image and Ethiopian map agency
3.2. Research Design

This study will be done in descriptive design. The design is chosen due to the rationale that it describes and interprets existing conditions, opinions held, process that are going on and effects that are evident. Both qualitative and quantitative research methods will be employed to describe the objectives of the study. These research methods are chosen because
? Data is collected in the field at the site where participants experience the issue or the problem under study
? It is relied on interviews and questionnaires
? It is relied with GPS and other GIS apparatuses.
3.3. Target Population
The purpose of this study is to explore GIS is used as a tool for tourism burden management and sustainable development in Simien Mountains National Park. Therefore, the population of this study are stakeholders of SMNP and includes local communities living in the national park, park management bodies, Regional Parks Authority and Tourism Bureau, Ethiopian map agency and federal institutions like Ethiopian Wildlife Conservation Authority and international non-governmental conservancy organizations.
3.4. Instrument, Samples and Sampling Technique
Different instruments will be used in the study. Spatial data, attribute data, GPS, Questionnaires, interviews, checklist and document analysis will be the key gathering tools.
The main data gathering instruments will be GPS, satellite image and total station (primary data) to collect spatial data and the researcher will use others for attribute data.
There are 582 households living within the park and 150 will be taken as a sample. According to Gomm (2008), the formula n= N/1+N X a2 can be used to draw a sample size where n is to refer number of sampled house hold, N is number of target population and a is 0.05 (95%)confidence level. Accordingly, the number of sampled households was 237. But due to some factors like time and inaccessibility of the area, 150 samples will be taken.
3.5. Methods of Data Analysis
Primary data will be analysis by Arc info and global mapper, Qualitative data will be analysed and interpreted to get the realized and detailed pictures of the problem on the study area. Carefully will gathered quantitative data are also processed in Statistical Package for Social Sciences Version 17.0.

Annexes
Work-Time Schedule
SN Activity Time Required Responsible Person
1 Preliminary Work
1.1 Proposal development and approval 1 month Researcher ; adviser
1.2 Instrument development and approval 20 days Researcher ; adviser
1.3 Sample selection 10 days Researcher ; adviser
1.4 Spatial data collection 2 weeks Researcher
1.5 Attribute data collection 5 weeks Researcher and professionals
1.6 Contact professionals 2 days Researcher
2 Data Collection and Analysis
2.1 Data collection 3 Weeks Researcher
2.2 Coding and entering data 1 Weeks Researcher
2.3 Analysing data 3 Weeks Researcher
2.4 Map formulation 3 months Researcher and professionals
3 Reporting and Validation
3.1 Writing Draft report 20 days Researcher
3.2 Writing final report 2 Weeks Researcher
4 Dissemination of Findings
5 Presenting the finding

Budget Breakdown
SN Type of Resources Quantity Unit Cost Total Cost
Birr Birr
1 Personnel
Secretarial Service – – 5,000
2 Equipments and Materials
GPS and total station rental 2 80,000 20,000
Recorder,Bag and binder 1 800.00 2,000
Desktop computer 2 5,000 10,000
3 Transportation Expenses
Transportation – – 3,000
4 Stationeries
Pen 1 pack 120.00 120.00
Pencil 1 pack 80.00 80.00
Copy paper 2 pack 150.00 300.00
5 Printing ; Binding
Photocopying – 1000.00
Printing 2000.00
Binding 200.00
6 Refreshment
Interview respondents 2000.00
Researcher – – 1000.00
8 Contingency 3000.00
Grand Total 49,700.00

Reference

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Bas Boers ; Stuart Cottrell. (2007, February). Sustainable Tourism Infrastructure Planning: A GIS Approach. Tourism Geographies, pp. 1-21.
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