Chapter 2 Related Literature and Studies Ultrasonic Treatment Ultrasonic

Chapter 2
Related Literature and Studies
Ultrasonic Treatment
Ultrasonic, according to (Rouse, 2005), is energy in the form of waves having a frequency above the human hearing range. The highest frequency that the human ear can detect is approximately twenty thousand cycles per second or 20,000 Hz. This is where the sonic range ends, and where the ultrasonic range begins.
The use of ultrasound is an active subject within the food industry for both of the research and development. When the ultrasound propagates through a material it induces compressions and decompressions (rarefactions) in the particles of the medium, due to which high amount of energy is produced. Sound is a mechanical wave that travels in a straight line and also it requires a medium through which it travels. Ultrasound is a wave with a frequently exceeding the upper limit of human hearing which is greater than 20,000 Hz (Hertz). In ultrasound, the sound ranges can be broadly divided into two different categories. The one is low energy, high frequency diagnostic ultrasound in the MHz range and another one is high energy, low frequency, power ultrasound in the kHz range. So it is possible that ultrasound can be used for processing (Rana, Meena, & Shweta, 2017).
According to (Ercan & Soysal, 2013) Ultrasound can be used as a promoter or alternative to food processing. There may be numerous advantages of using ultrasound for food processing such as effective mixing, increased mass transfer, reduced energy, reduced temperature and increased production rate. Due to the elimination of microorganisms and enzymes without destroying nutrients of foods, ultrasound can be used as an alternative method to thermal treatments in the food preservation. Additionally, low power ultrasound is thought to be an attractive nonthermal method due to overcome problems which occur during heat treatments such as physical and chemical changes, nutritional loss and change in organoleptic properties.
According to (Wrigley & Llorca, 1992), Ultrasonic waves induce cavitation which is lethal for many bacteria. When Salmonella typhimurium was suspended in skim milk or brain heart infusion broth placed in an ultrasonicating water bath, the number of bacteria decreased by 2 to 3 log CFU in a time dependent manner.
According to (Chandrapala, Oliver, Kentish, & Ashokkumar, 2012), Ultrasonication can pasteurize and preserve the foods by inactivating many enzymes and microorganisms at mild temperature conditions, which can improve food quality in addition to guaranteeing stability and safety of foods
Egg Industry

Throughout the history, eggs become one of the recognized foods in the whole world. Eggs can be found anywhere in this world. According to (Khong, 2017) Eggs are “star of the most important meal of the day, and, to hear billions of cooks and chefs tell it, quite possibly the world’s most important food.” Not only in the Philippines, eggs are also considered as main food throughout the world. A study estimates that the egg consumption will rise through 2024. According to (Conway, 2015), in 2014, for about 179 egg per person is consumed in Asia and 263.3 eggs in United States. This proven that a large number of eggs are eat by human wherever they are.

Eggs have many advantages that is why they are mainly used in the daily consumption. Eggs are known as a healthy food that has high numbers of protein. One egg contains 6-7 grams of protein depending on the size (Bjarnadottir, 2017). It is also considered that eggs are source of Vitamin B2 and B6, Vitamin D and B12, selenium and minerals such as copper, iron and zinc (Lewin, 2018). Also, eggs are used to be creative when it comes in cooking. It can be used in different recipes that makes the food even more delicious. Some famous and best recipes of eggs that can be found on the internet are omelet, scrambled eggs, egg rice and many more. It is important to secure and maintain the nutrients in eggs to ensure the health of the consumers.

Various ways are provided by egg industries in maintaining the nutrients that can be found in eggs. It is important to secure the eggs right from the very start. Eggs are produced by poultry farmers with the use of hens. The production of eggs starts in the poultry farm. Below are types of poultry enterprises:

This data are based to (Abbott & Stewart, 1961). Among those types, backyard poultry is the common type that the Philippines is using. With the use of feeds or chicken foods, the hens will lay eggs again for about 26 hours after the previous egg is laid (Jacob, 2015). Since the hens are sensitive to light, there are some circumstances that the scheduled laying of eggs are postponed when they are exposed in uncontrolled light.

Like any other food, eggs are prone to bacteria. Poultry farmers are having their ways to prevent the eggs to be rotten easily. It is recommended to store the eggs in carton rather than in refrigerator with a low temperature. “The carton protects the eggs and prevents them from absorbing strong odors and flavors of other foods in your fridge through the thousands of tiny pores in the egg shell” (Egg Storage, Freshness & Food Safety, n.d.). Since the egg has 8000 microscopic pores, it is one of the reasons why it needs to be secured.

Prices of eggs varies depending on the season or the quality of eggs. In economics, the higher the demand, the higher the price. “The price of any commodity rises or falls, by the proportion of the number of buyers and sellers.” (Locke, n.d.). Applying this principle in egg industry is no difference at all. In Philippines, based on survey done by the researchers on Pila, Laguna, the months where the demands are low are during summer between March to May or sometimes earlier. It is the time that classes are cut and finished. On the other hand, June to October are the months where the demands of eggs rises as long as the price. Another reasons why prices of eggs varies are because of bird flu and the high cost of feeds.

According to Simon Monk in his book of Programming Arduino: Getting Started with Sketches, the heart of Arduino is a microcontroller. Anything in the board of Arduino hardware is concerned by giving the board a power and permitting it to communicate with the desktop computer. Microcontroller is a tiny computer on a chip. It also have the systems and parts same to computer such as processor, a kilobyte or two of random access memory (RAM) for storing the data, a few kilobytes of erasable programmable read-only memory (EPROM) or a flash memory for storing and holding the programs and also a peripherals pins. These peripherals connect the microcontroller to the other electronics components.
Input can read both digital and analog. This ability is for connecting different types of sensor for light, temperature, sound, and etc. While output can either be analog or digital. By this, it can be used to control higher power devices like motors. It can also deliver an analog output voltage, allowing to control the speed of a motor. (Monk, 2012)
According to Massimo Banzi and Michael Shiloh in the book of Make: Getting Started with Arduino, the other major parts of Arduino is its hardware which is the Arduino Integrated Development Environment or the Arduino IDE. This is a small board with a breadboard and other electronics components to be used in programming the Arduino. It is a small circuit on the board that includes a complete computer-like on a tiny chip. Interactive device is an electronic circuit which is capable in sensing the environment with the use of sensors, electronic components that can transform the actual measurements into electrical signals. The device will process the inputted information from the sensors that is programmed in the software and this device will be able to work together with the use of actuators, electronic components that can convert an electric signal into physical action. (Banzi & Shiloh, 2015)
According to (Tawil, 2016), Understanding Arduino Uno Hardware Design, A good understanding of the electronic design of Arduino hardware will help the user learn how to embed an Arduino in the design of a final product, including what to keep and what to omit from the original design. The PCB design of the Arduino UNO uses SMD or the Surface Mount Device components. After the code is compiled using the Arduino IDE, it should be uploaded to the main microcontroller of the Arduino UNO using a USB connection. It is because the main microcontroller do not have a USB transceiver, the user need a bridge to convert signals between the serial interface or UART interface of the microcontroller and the host USB signals. If the user wants to reset the board, the user must use a push button in the board or open the serial monitor from Arduino IDE.
According to (, Copyright 2014-2018), Arduino for Beginners, There are different types of Arduino boards. The boards with the name Arduino on them are the official boards. If the user want to create a wearable electronic project, the user might want to consider the LilyPad board. It is designed to be easily sewn into e-textiles and wearable projects. If the project has a small form factor, the user might want to use the Arduino Pro Mini which has a very small footprint compared to other boards. The popular Arduino board is the Arduino UNO. It remains to be the most actively used and most widely documented on the market. The components that make up an Arduino board are the reset button, AREF or the Analog Reference used to set an external reference voltage, Ground Pin, Digital Inpit/Output, PWM that can simulate the analog output, USB Connection, TX/RX or the transmit and receive data indication LEDs, ATmega Microcontroller, Power LED Indicator, Voltage Regulator, DC Power Barrel Jack, 3.3V Pin, 5V Pin, Ground Pins, and Analog Pins.
According to (Gibb, 2010), New Media Art, Design, and the Arduino Microcontroller: Malleable Tool, the Arduino microcontroller itself is based on other open source tools for artists. The most influential to the Arduino are the Processing language and the Wiring microcontroller. Processing is a Java base visual language for artists and the Wiring microcontroller is an input/output board for arts, media and education. Due to new tools such as these and the Arduino microcontroller, artists and designers are capable of completing tasks traditionally completed by electrical engineers. Beneath the relationship between the Arduino and art lies an alliance of engineers, artists and designers. May cross disciplinary team efforts revolve around the Arduino with learning environments, work spaces and online. Often a team consisting of an engineer and an artist or designer will create works together, drawing on one another’s strengths. The skill sets of the teams expand by collaborating with people of diverse backgrounds on the common platform which the Arduino microcontroller provides. The Arduino community threads together borrowed code, inspires new ideas, provide examples and starting points for non-technical users. The Arduino microcontroller proves to be instituted the way it was intended by its developers. It is an easy-to-use, adaptable open source, and used in art and design.