Chapter-1 Introduction

Chapter-1
Introduction (background)
Any portion of the natural environment such as atmospheres, water, soil, forest, wildlife, land, minerals and environmental assets refer to natural resources. Likewise goods an services supplied by our living or non-living nvironment to meet human needs and wants are the natural resources(Pradhan and Pradhan, 2006).

Natural resources management(NRM) is a framework which analyses how natural reources are being ued to make a living which involves appropriation, distribution, utilization and conservation of natural resources. It highly requires users participation. Usually the local peoples, who are very aware of the natural resources plays a vital role in maintaining an eco-balance.It is also considered that the participation of local people in the development of natural resource is considered as the best way to best way t preserve, use, and manage
Nepal has undergone rapid urbanization in the last two decades with the urban population growing at an average rate of 6.5% per annum – the highest growth rate in South Asia (UNEP,2001). About 15% of the country’s population now lives in towns. As a result of this rapid urban growth, the Government of Nepal created an additional 22 municipalities in 1997 in accordance with the Municipality Act 1983. (khanal, 2016)Although many smaller municipalities continue to be settlements with rural characteristics, urbanization in Nepal is often characterized by unplanned and haphazard growth. This situation has resulted in a lack of basic infrastructure such as quality roads, sanitation, and drinking water. In addition, this unplanned growth can cause environmental problems such as air and water pollution, public space and riverbank encroachment. Unless timely development interventions are made, many municipalities are destined to grow into large, crowded cities with poor quality of life for the inhabitants who will be faced with inadequate infrastructure. Where use of technical tools in planning can help us in the result of equal distribution and systematic management of resources. This is where the probable solution lies.

Nepal has a lot of natural resources and lots of development potential, but wrong utilization and management of the natural resources leads us always in making “Developing Country”. Country is only developed when their resources are utilized and managed in proper way. In Nepal. There lies various forms of natural resources in a huge amount. In this research only water resource is taken to study. Waer is a mobile resource: it falls from the clouds, seeps into soil flows through natural quifiers, runs along stream courses, and eventually returns to the clouds through water bodies like sea, great lakes, etc. Water may be managed in different ways: it may be harvested, extracted from the ground, diverted, transported, and stored which is used for many purposes.
As already mentioned, water is the largest natural resources of Nepal. Although a relatively low percentage of total population is getting safe and clean water for daily use. Nepal’s rugged topography creates such a potential for putting water resources to economically productive uses such as hydroelectric power generation and irrigation (council, 1993). In Nepal there are about 6000 rivers and rivulets out of which 100 of them are more than 10 km long. The total length of all the rivers and rivulets exceeds 45000 km where annual mean flow of Major River is estimate to be 4390 m3/sec. while in our country only the 600 MW of hydropower generation is used until now where it has the capacity of using 83000 MW which is roughly 0.7% of the total potential. (lekhak, 2003).
In accordance with the decentralization policy of Nepal, (The Local Self-Governance Act, 1999) gives municipalities’ complete responsibility for local-level planning and decision-making. Planning and management of resources and infrastructure at the local level need to be based on accurate and up-to-date information and to use modern techniques that enable complex analysis and assessment. Geographic information systems (GIS) are increasingly being seen as versatile tools in urban applications and decision support systems. The study presented here demonstrates how GIS can help in integrating and analyzing various types of information that are important for municipal-level planning (especially focusing on the drinking water distribution for this project). Kirtipur Municipality, which is close to Nepal’s two largest municipalities of Kathmandu and Lalitpur and has all the characteristics of rapid and haphazard growth, was chosen as an example for the study.

Overview of Kirtipur:
Situated on the southwest of the Kathmandu the ancient kingdom is one of the five municipalities in the valley. It is located exactly at 27% 38′ 37″ to 27%41’36” at north and 85%18’00” to East. One of the oldest settlement of the local newars contains 19 wards with the total population of 65,602 among them 36,476 are male and 29,126 are females. (Central Bureau of Statistics, 2011). It is bordered by the Baghmati river to east, Machhengaun Village development Committee (VDC) to the west, Kathmandu Metropolitan city to the north and Chalnakhel VDC to the south.

Kirtipur was identified as a ‘town’ or urban locality in 1971 census when the criteria for designating urban localities changed. The settlement was confined within the outer wall built during Malla period.(1168-1768 A.D) (Manandhar and Shrestha 1990). Kirtipur was formed in 1997 by combining eight VDC’s.
The ancient layout of open hills survive with little change, most expansion has been concentrated at the southern base of hills. The establishment of Tribhuwan University Campus in Kirtipur and the proximity of the municipality to the ring road, has made the area attractive as residential land for the people of Kathmandu. This has also resulted in significant changes in land-us patterns and the overall structure of the municipality in recent years.

Statement of the problem:
Kirtipur is a famous area for non-residential students and professors. Apart from the agriculture and small scale industries, renting houses and flats contribute especially to the local economy.(Wikipedia, 2015).
According to census, 2011 this beautiful valley has the population of 67,171 distributing fair amount of water is a huge challenge. Among the locals residing at kirtipur, the following conclusions were achieved as the problem while surveying
Distribution is not equal
Insufficient capacity of the reservoir
Research and the outcomes are not updated and scientific.

Less rainfall
More population resulting in more demands.

Objectives:
The purpose of this study is to gain knowledge and basic skills of market research in order to get practical example for the proper distribution of water using GIS.

Especially,
To capture data of a certain area using GIS and represent it in a web
a. To create a user-friendly grievance management system using PHP.
b. To integrate large volumes of data from multiple sources to produce information in a spatial contact in the form of maps.

c. To demonstrate how GIS can be a boon in planning process.

d. To increase sustainable access to improved water services.

e. To research on the present scenario of GIS in drinking water.

f. To analyze and select a suitable SDLC method for application development.

g. To analyze the working mechanisms, and technologies of the present scenario of drinking water.
h. Examine the spatial distribution of drinking water in kirtipur municipality and consider

Research Question:
a. What tools and technologies are used in managing water distribution?
b. How traditional system managed drinking water supply?
c. What are the strengths and weaknesses faced following the old method in distribution planning?
d. What problems are being faced in distribution of water properly?
Rationale:
The developed system us beneficial than the current systems because the system includes

References:
1. Unep
2.
Khanal, G. (2016). Fiscal Decentralization and Municipal Performance in Nepal. ebook Lalitpur: n.d, pp.59-87. Available at: http://file:///C:/Users/Lenovo/Downloads/Article%206%20Fiscal%20Decentralization%20and%20Municipal%20Governance%20in%20Nepal.pdf Accessed 30 Apr. 2018.

Central Bureau of Statistics (2012) NATIONAL POPULATION CENSUS 2011 HOUSEHOLD AND POPULATION BY SEX WARD LEVEL, Kathmandu, Thapathali : Government of Nepal.