BAHIR DAR UNIVERSITY BAHIR DAR INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY SCHOOL OF RESEARCH AND POSTGRADUATE STUDIES ELECTRICAL AND COMPUTER ENGINEERING FACULITY FEASIBILITY STUDY OF DC SUPPLY FOR HOME APPLIANCES MSc. THESIS By MISRAK TILAHUN Program POWER SYSTEM ENGINEERING Main Advisor Dr. Eng. Getachew Biru Co-Advisor September, 2017 Addis Ababa, Ethiopia Bahir Dar Institute of Technology-Bahir Dar University School of Research and Graduate Studies Electrical and Computer Engineering Faculty THESIS PROPOSAL Student Ms. MISRAK TILAHUN__________________________________________________ Name Signature Date The following graduate faculty members certify that this student has successfully presented the necessary written thesis proposal and oral presentation of this proposal for partial fulfillment of the thesis-option requirements for the Degree of Master of Science in Power System Engineering. Approved Advisor Dr. Eng. GETACHEW BIRU______________________________________________ Name Signature Date Chair Holder ________________________________________________________________________ Name Signature Date Faculty Dean ________________________________________________________________________ Name Signature Date Acknowledgements It is only possible to perform this study with the proper guidance and assistance of my advisor, so I would like to pass my gratitude for my advisor Dr. Eng. Getachew Biru to whom I have been privileged to work with. I would like give a special word of thanks for my family and friend for creating an environment in which it was possible to take the MSc program as a whole. Above all I would like to thank the almighty God for his protection, blessing and support throughout my life. Abbreviations AC Alternating Current DC Direct Current PV Photovoltaic LCD Liquid Crystal Display LED Light Emitting Diode Table of Contents TOC o 1-3 h z u HYPERLINK l _Toc477190653 Acknowledgements PAGEREF _Toc477190653 h ii HYPERLINK l _Toc477190654 Abbreviations PAGEREF _Toc477190654 h iii HYPERLINK l _Toc477190655 Summary PAGEREF _Toc477190655 h v HYPERLINK l _Toc477190656 1 Introduction PAGEREF _Toc477190656 h 1 HYPERLINK l _Toc477190657 1.1. Background 3 HYPERLINK l _Toc477190658 2 Literature Review 4 HYPERLINK l _Toc477190659 3 Statement of the problem 6 HYPERLINK l _Toc477190660 4 Objectives of the study 7 HYPERLINK l _Toc477190661 5 Methodology 9 HYPERLINK l _Toc477190662 6 Scope 10 HYPERLINK l _Toc477190663 7 Significance of the Study 11 HYPERLINK l _Toc477190664 8 Work Plan 12 HYPERLINK l _Toc477190665 9 Budget Plan 13 HYPERLINK l _Toc477190666 Reference 14 Summary The study carries out feasibility of DC supply system for home appliances. Most modern-day home appliances include electronic circuits and some of them are becoming battery based system which needs an AC to DC converter to provide clean and regulated DC power. So there are lots of places that you will lose energy and be inefficient. Such kinds of technological change have the possibility of requiring an electrical load that receives DC input from home. For this purpose the study perform analysis of the best DC voltage value, modeling of the loads with DC Supply, Comparative analysis of DC/AC supply in terms of reliability, PQ and efficiency, Identify major re-engineering aspects of the AC devices for DC supply and Comparing the cost benefit of manufacturing the DC devices against AC devices. For a comprehensive evaluation, power system simulation of home appliance and DC supply system for home will be designed. From the simulation test the feasibility of DC supply for home will be verified. Additionally for the DC power supply both photovoltaic (PV) and AC/DC converter will be considered and evaluated as scenario. The study will be completed within six months period and the investment required for the study is 12,975.00 birr. Chapter 1 Introduction Back to 1880s the first commercial distribution was direct current (DC) which was commissioned by HYPERLINK https// o Thomas EdisonThomas Edison and in 1886HYPERLINK https// o George WestinghouseGeorge Westinghousebegan building an alternating current (AC) system that used a HYPERLINK https// o Transformer transformerto step up voltage for long-distance transmission and then stepped it back down for indoor lighting, a more efficient and less expensive system that directly competed for the market the Edison system was designed to serve following these events there were a big debate which was called War of the CurrentsorBattle of Currents and finally AC won out over DC as the power distribution of choice, mainly because of the ability to have large generators in a central location and With the development of a practical HYPERLINK https// o Transformer transformer, alternating-current power could be sent long distances over relatively small wires at a conveniently high voltage, then reduced in voltage to that used by a customer. The direct-current system generated and distributed electrical power at the same voltage as used by the customers. This required the use of large, costly distribution wires and forced generating plants on every street or even every home, which was not possible nor economically viable at the time. 1 This debate came in to light due to the development of power electronics which gives a better utilization of existing transmission and the increase uses of renewable sources for energy generation because the most widespread renewable energy generators are solar and wind, both of which provide DC voltage output. Statement of the Problem While most appliances internally powered by DC they are generally manufactured and sold with AC plugs which requires an AC to DC converter. To power these appliances AC needs to be rectified, filtered and regulated to provide a smooth DC and many electronic circuits have different DC Voltages in the same device, for this reason there should be AC to DC converter in different stage this will incur additional manufacturing cost and also have factor on the efficiency of power utilization due to power loss on the converters. Lets look at a theoretical wind turbine on a theoretical property The wind blows wind turbine spins generator in turbine creates AC power AC converted to DC DC stored in a battery DC converted back to AC when needed AC powers devices in a home (possibly) AC converted back to DC for use in consumer devices. Thats a lot of steps to convert wind energy for use there are lots of places that you will be losing energy to inefficiencies. These occur in the power generation, the storage in the batteries, the AC to DC conversion and the DC to AC conversion. It is not hard to see why this is not the preferred method of powering ones home. As the green living evolution changes our ways of thinking, the simplest method for improving overall efficiency would be to remove one or more of those steps. One of these ways would be to convert a power scheme in a house the less you need to convert between AC and DC, the less energy will go to waste. Nowadays, the current technology of power electronics, generation of DC power from renewable energy sources like photovoltaic etc. are the main forces pushing towards the re-evaluation of the DC distribution capabilities and most of our appliances are becoming battery based system such as laptop, phone… etc., most modern-day home appliances include electronic circuits such as micro-controllers, LCD displays, etc., which need an AC/DC power supply to provide clean and regulated DC power and other loads like LED lighting system, TV, etc. require DC supply. Such kinds of technological growth/change have the possibility of requiring an electrical load that receives DC input from home. Renewable Energy generation Unelectrified city in Ethiopia and The possibility to provide electrical using renewable energy power supply Background The power industry worldwide has working in different aspect for changing demands with respect to enhancing safety and efficiency and environmental safeguards. In such an environment it is essential that the personnel and the plant and equipment involved, perform to their optimum levels of capability. Feasibility study of DC supply for home has a role in providing a response to such demands on the industry, by enhancing the efficient power utilization, reduces manufacturing cost of home appliance by eliminating AC/DC converters required in different stage and supply DC power directly and environmental safeguarding by using renewable energy power supply. This study concept already been used and proven that the use of direct DC supply from solar power for lighting, fan systems and electric vehicles charging etc. are more efficient. 1.4 Objective of the study The general objective of the study to verify the feasibility of DC power supply for residential home appliance with the aim of achieving significant efficiency gain in energy consumption in comparison with AC supply. The specific objectives are- Identification of typical loads for home Practically home electrical appliances are too many and some of the loads require high power and the others require low power and some might require AC supply and others require DC for their operation. In order to give a specific focusing area for the study identification of typical appliances for home will be studied to determine the type of appliances that will be considered on the study and there power rating. Make analysis of the best DC voltage value Different Electronic equipment have different DC voltage value requirement some works 6V, 12V, 24V, 48V etc. and many electronic circuits have several different DC voltages in the same device. For this reason making analysis of the best voltage value will be one part of the study. Modeling of the loads with DC Supply One of the issues regarding the adoption of DC is that while devices may be internally powered by DC they are generally manufactured and sold with AC plugs/power supplies. For this reason using Matlab or any other appropriate software modeling of home appliance for direct DC supply will be performed to study the load characteristics and for the comparative analysis of AC verses DC. Comparative analysis of DC/AC supply in terms of energy efficiency, energy saving, reliability and PQ The comparative analysis of DC/AC supply is for the checking of the existing AC supply home appliance verses modified home appliance to be supplied with DC in terms of reliability, PQ and Efficiency. Identify major re-engineering aspects of the AC devices for DC supply Re-engineering aspects of the AC devices for DC supply will be modeled and analyzed for the selected home appliance. Compare the cost benefit of manufacturing DC devices against AC devices The overall aim of comparing Cost benefit of manufacturing the DC devices against AC devices are to identify which power supply system have a cost benefit over the other on the manufacturing of home electrical devices. For a comprehensive evaluation, data collection, analysis and power system simulation of home appliance and DC supply system for home are designed. From this data collection, analysis and simulation test the feasibility of DC supply are verified. Additionally for the DC power supply photovoltaic (PV) are considered as scenario. Scope The feasibility study of DC power supply for home will be limited on selected home appliance. The study have objective which focus on the Identification of typical loads for home, determination of best DC voltage value, Modeling and analyzes of loads with DC Supply, making a Comparative analysis of DC/AC supply in terms of reliability, PQ and efficiency, Identifying major re-engineering aspects of the AC devices for DC supply and Comparing the cost benefit of manufacturing the DC devices against AC devices. And to study a DC supply directly from photovoltaic and from AC/DC converter. A model house hold will be consider to evaluate the overall efficiency gain in energy consumption achieved due to the direct supplying of DC for home appliances considered on the study in comparison with AC supply and to provide DC supply system for that particular house hold. Significance of the Study The study verify the feasibility of DC supply for home, in terms loss minimization by omitting AC to DC converter, eliminating the 50Hz hum, Shrinking power supplies and manufacturing cost reduction of home appliance by eliminating AC/DC converters required in different stage of the existing power supply system of home appliance and provide answer for the stated objective. Chapter 2 Theoretical Background and Review of Literature The issue of using AC or DC power supply system seems like an unresolved issue and war of current is still on. The debate again came into light due to recent development in power electronics which gives a better utilization of existing transmission system with high voltage DC connections. High voltage DC transmission allows more power to be transmitted over a long distance with less loss compared to an AC transmission. Power electronics makes efficient and accurate control of electrical power possible. Efficient AC to DC, DC to AC and DC to DC conversion technology are now available on the market, where DC to DC conversion is more efficient than AC to DC conversion 2 It has been known for a long time that direct current (DC) is potentially more convenient, in terms of efficiency, in the transmission of electrical energy than three-phase current and single phase current. Losses that occur in cables are potentially lower for DC than AC, because the cable can be used to its highest insulation rating. However, AC possesses some unique characteristics that have made it the main form of current used for electrical transmission. In fact, AC voltage can be easily raised in magnitude, thanks to transformers, and power carried over long distances with a small amount of loss. Further, the development of low-cost, rugged and efficient AC machines, to dominate the electrical machines panorama paved the way towards the international adoption of AC for electrical transmission. Nonetheless, the increasing penetration of power electronics in the electrical, electronic and electromechanical engineering is at the base of the potential switch towards the use of DC for the same objective. Power electronics plays a key-role posing challenges on the use of electrical energy in DC form, for both technical (in addition to conversion efficiencies) and economic aspects. This happens in both transmission (HVDC systems) and distribution (LVDC systems). The increasing uses of renewable sources for energy generation as well as increasing use of more efficient electrical loads based on power electronics are the main forces pushing towards the re-evaluation of the DC distribution capabilities and the potential energy savings. 3 Three low voltage direct current (DC) distribution systems of different voltage levels are compared with the existing alternating current (AC) system in Bangladesh to make the residential buildings more energy efficient. Losses in the cable, internal losses of the devices, energy consumption cost, efficiency of the converters and initial cost for new wiring are the factors which have been assessed to obtain the best system. Besides, a hybrid appliance is prototyped consisting of air-cooler, refrigerator and electric stove altogether for higher efficiency. The wasted heat energies from the cooling devices are stored in a thermal storage by thermoelectric modules and used later for heating purposes for the better overall efficiency. 4 Study on DC electric power distribution and generation with photovoltaic into electricity demand by an average household, PV supply, DC distribution and storage clarified the following The introduction of DC-based distribution has a potential to reduce conversion losses, by eliminating the need for conversion between PV and distribution (DC/ AC), and within appliances (AC/ DC). An essential condition for the realization of potential building design optimization improved house lay-out led to a significant reduction in electricity distribution losses. The total power losses in the AC house would exceed the total power losses in the DC concept house, so that introduction of DC based distribution would mean a reduction of the total losses of electricity conversion and transport. 5 Nextek Power Systems Company in USA have also made different case studies on the use of direct DC supply from solar power for lighting, fan systems and electric vehicles charging etc. 6 No. Title Name of Author/s Type of Literature Main Finding Simulation Software used 1 On the Feasibility of DC Home Appliance in DC Power Supply System Using Power Simulator Jung-Hoon Ahn, Yun-Sung Kim, Seung-Min Shin and Byoung-Kuk Lee Study Paper (Journal) DC appliance safety for solving various safety problems Input polarity correction circuit which can automatically correct the polarity at the moment of plug in. Heavy load control board suitable for DC home appliance for DC breaking ability to enhance the safety. Power simulator 2 Design of Home Appliances for a DC-Based Nanogrid System An Induction Range Study Case Oscar Lucia, Igor Cvetkovic, Hector Sarnago, Dushan Boroyevich, Paolo Mattavelli, Fred C.Lee Study Paper (Journal) Design and Implementation of an Induction Heating appliance for operation in a DC-based system. Not specified 3 Robust Safety Circuits for DC Powered Home Appliance in Transient State Jung-Hoon Ahn, Yun-Sung Kim and Byoung-Kuk LeeStudy Paper (Journal) The transient state of DC plugging in/out Comparative analysis of AC and DC home appliance and Inrush Current reduction technique for DC Home appliances Not specified 4 Comparative analysis and safety standards Guideline of AC and DC Supplied Home Appliance Study Paper (Journal) DC appliance model to suit dc distribution system DC safety standards that should be complemented for eliminating risk caused by distribution system change Comparison of DC safety standard with international AC safety standards. Not specified Chapter 3 Research Methods 3.1. Data collection The preparation phase of Feasibility Study of DC Supply for Home involves the collection of data drawings and manufacture manuals were an integral part of the analysis and decision making process. Required Materials and Documentation Lists of home appliances Schematic Drawings of the loads Equipment manufacturer drawings and manuals 3.2. Analysis of sample home electrical loads Understanding working principle of the loads How the power supply system constructed and there voltage values How it could be re-modeled for direct DC supply Factors that could be affected with the re-modeling 3.3. Simulation As part of the process to implement the DC home appliance Matlab simulation software and straight forward mathematics were used. 3.4Analysis of the simulation result The analysis will be made based on the Identification of typical loads for home determination of the best DC voltage value Modeling of the loads with DC Supply Comparative analysis of DC/AC supply in terms of reliability, PQ and efficiency Identify major re-engineering aspects of the AC devices for DC supply and Comparing the cost benefit of manufacturing the DC devices against AC devices. Chapters 4 Data Collection and Analysis For the purpose of this study a two bed room household are taken for showing the overall analysis result and five different home appliances which are Refrigerator, Washing Machine, Food Processor, Mobile Charger and LED lights are investigated based on the predefined objectives. The devices which are selected to be studied are mainly household devices that are needed in our daily life. To demonstrate the difference between AC and DC power supply system for the sample household (AC supply from grid and DC from Solar cell), Comparative analysis of DC/AC supply in terms of Energy consumption, efficiency of the system and reliability are analyzed for the existing AC system and for solar cell DC supply system and re-engineering aspects of the AC devices for DC supply and Comparison of the cost benefit of manufacturing the DC devices against AC devices are analyzed. AC Power Supply System A 220 volt AC supply system for home directly from AC supplying Grid and from Solar cell through DC to AC inverter are connected on home distribution system. From these AC distribution system when AC using home appliance use the supply directly the DC using appliance have additional components for AC to DC and DC to DC converter. To utilize the DC power sources from solar cell involves three stages of energy conversion (DC/AC, AC/DC and DC/DC) there are some losses in this conversion. These losses could be minimized by introducing DC grid. A typical AC to DC converter consists four stages transformer, rectifier, filter and voltage regulator. Strictly speaking all that is required for conversion from AC to DC but if voltage transformation are not required the transformer can be eliminated. Based on this fact the investigated home appliance in this study can be classified in to two appliance that have transformer in there AC to DC converter and does not have transformer. Only the rectification loss will be consider for the AC and DC supply system comparison. Home Appliances Fig. 4.1.1 220 volt AC Power Supply System Fig. 4.1.2 Appliance Power Supply System from AC Plug Losses and voltage drops across the cable for 220 V AC system The losses and voltage drop over the feeder cable can be calculated for the selected appliance by considering the cable resistance (R) with the supply voltage (V) and circuit current (I). Taking in to account the voltage drop on the feeder cables is only depend on the resistive losses inductive effects are neglected for this specific study. The current in the appliances circuit is I P . (1) V The losses on the feeder cable is Ploss R I2 (2) And the resistance of the Cable is The living style of households are different even if they have the same size of house, the same number of family and having the same type and number of appliances one family may use more energy than the other. The main objective of analyzing this information is to identify the maximum power demand required by the sample house. What is now needed is how long each appliance is used each day. To perform detailed analysis by physically measuring peoples homes on a daily basis and deriving a statistical average from all measurements would be beyond the scope of this study. Therefore for the appliance on time per day the following assumption are made for this study Table 1. ApplianceNumber of AppliancePower (W)Current at 220V (A)Wire Length (m)On time per day (h)Refrigerator14502.0451012 hrWashing machine15002.272102 hr per weekFood Processor 11500.681100.15 hrMobile Charger260.027241 hrLED Light970.032248 hr Appliances using DC voltage for operation when they are used in DC distribution system they are connected directly to the DC supply without any converting stage. If the appliance is supplied with DC the losses in the AC to DC rectifier and this can be eliminated. In case of the AC system, there will be a rectification losses in the system but if the main power supply is DC, then there is no rectification losses. Efficiency of the system The simulation of the proposed power converter for operation in a DC distribution system is performed focusing on the system efficiency, and it is compared with the conventional AC distribution system. The main power losses considered are the conduction losses in the rectifier (only for the ac system), conduction losses in the inverter and diodes, and the switching losses. Rectifier power loss Conduction loss in the full-bridge diode rectifier Pr can be calculated as a function of the equivalent diode conduction parameters VON, RON, and the current through the devices. The forward voltage drop of a diode is different for different types of diode. 0.6V forward voltage (VF) is considered for this calculation. The energy consumption of the selected appliance for sample house in a year can be obtained by summing up the energy consumption of the selected appliances. The amount of energy consumed in year by an appliance is given by Energy consumption of the Appliance is equal to Power rating of the appliance (W) times appliance on time per day (h) times 365 days. Table 3. ApplianceEnergy loss on the wire (kwh/year)Rectification Loss (kwh/year)Loss of energy in year (kwh/year)Refrigerator1.24310.74811.991Washing machine0.036 0.283 0.319Food Processor 0.001 0.044 0.045Mobile Charger0 0.011 0.011LED Light0 0.1100.11Total1.2811.19612.476 For the AC system the total losses can be divided into two types, the losses due to resistive losses in the feeder and losses due to the rectification. From the calculation of losses for the appliances above, it is observed that the resistive losses are 1.28 kWh per year and losses for AC to DC rectification of the appliances is 11.196 kWh per year. The rectification loss is higher than the resistive loss and it is 89.7 of the total losses. Reliability DC power supply system Many household appliances operate internally on DC voltage where an alternating voltage of 220V is step down and rectified to a low DC voltage. The scheme of proposed DC system presents in Figure 4.2.1. The solar cell is connected to the DC bus when we compared to AC system, the DC energy sources have eliminated one DC to AC conversion stage. The energy storage system can be connected directly with the DC bus without any converter. To connect the DC distribution system with the existing AC system an additional AC to DC converter is required which is a drawback. As mention before, many household appliances operate internally on DC and when supplied with AC voltage AC is transformed to a low voltage DC. In this work it is assumed that these loads can be connected directly to the DC supply without any conversion. In reality may be a DC to DC converter can be needed to adapt the voltage level. Home Appliances Fig.4.2.1 Home DC Power Supply System Fig. 4.2.2 Appliance Power Supply System from DC plug Loss and energy calculations for the DC distribution system The losses and voltage drop over the feeder cable can be calculated for the selected appliance by considering the cable resistance (R) with the supply voltage (V) and circuit current (I). The current in the appliances circuit is I dc P . (4) Vdc The losses on the feeder cable is Ploss R I dc 2 (5) The energy loss on the feeder cable for the DC system is calculated by using equation 5. Since the power supply for DC system are provided from solar power no need of having rectification therefore the rectification loss is zero. As mention before the rectifier losses are put to zero, but DC to DC converter losses is considered for those appliance which requires different voltage value for their operation than the supplied DC voltage i.e. Food processor, LED light and Mobile charger. The refrigerator and the washing machine can be operated with the supplied voltage value. A DC to DC Inverter function is to provide different DC voltage needed by different appliances. Obviously it eliminates the necessity of providing separate DC power supplies to different appliances working in different voltage levels. It is consists of . DC to DC Inverter Loss Energy loss calculation for the 24 V DC system Efficiency of the system Reliability Identification of typical load for home The peak power value is usually used when sizing up for renewable energy generators. The conventional method is to use statistics to work out the peak power. This is worked out by using the total load profile provided by an energy supply company for a specific geographical area and then taking the amount of houses, work out an average daily peak power. Using this method one gets a statistical average peak power per house. This methodology has very little direct correlation to the actual appliances used in the different homes in that geographical area and suffers from the disadvantage that it is derived from AC energy usage and not DC. For this research the bottom up approach is employed and the actual DC appliances utilised in the design of the DC house are used to derive the peak power and power usage. The current rating for each appliance given in column 6 of Table 8 was multiplied by 24, the nominal voltage of the system, to give us the maximum power for each appliance, which is shown in column 7. The total possible power for each spur is given in column 8. This gives us a peak power of 2347 Watts. The microwave oven by itself uses 960 Watts. With the microwave the peak power becomes 2347 960 3307 Watts. As explained above, the microwave is perhaps a luxury and would not be desired in the minimalistic house. However what will the householder use to cook the food Would the slow cooker be good enough To identify the typical load for home on this particular study first let us list the type of appliance selected for the study and their power rating Refrigerator (W), Washing Machine (W), Food Processor (W), Mobile Charger (W) and LED lights (W). Then from the two bed room sample house let us see the number of appliance that would be available Refrigerator 1, Washing Machine 1, Food Processor 1, Mobile Charger 2 and LED lights 9. The total load of the household by considering only the selected appliance would be the sum of the individual appliance power rating multiplied by the number of appliance available. Total Load (1 refrigerator power rating 1 washing machine power rating 1 food processor 2 mobile charger power rating 9 LED light power rating) (1 … 1 1 2 9 ) KW Analysis of the best DC voltage value Different study made on finding the optimal DC voltage value for home power distribution system are not reached on an agreed value. Some prefer to use low voltage DC values like 24V and 48V as this has been a long-standing voltage that already has many applications and would like this to be the Standard for use and the other prefer to use high voltage DC like 400V DC for their applications and see the low voltage DC as having disadvantages. There is always a trade-off between the maximum length of cable, and the amount of current that can be drawn through that cable, therefore there is no optimum voltage for the DC house. When designing a DC house what we need is a simple way of finding out how the different design parameters will impact the design. However with at least 4 parameters, manual calculations can be very time consuming. One of the easiest ways of presenting a complex system with multiple variables is graphical. To get a quick perspective of the different cable gauges and lengths of the cable, voltages and currents that make up the system parameters, a set of graphical tools could be developed. Benefits of Direct Current Electricity Supply for Domestic Application It will depend on the balance in the variables that the designer chooses. The forces applied by the appliance industry and the power generating industry plays an important role as well on choosing the optimal DC voltage value. Modelling of the appliance with DC Supply The design of the selected home appliance for operation in a DC distribution system are given. Considering the new design conditions, the power conversion scheme is changed from the one shown in Fig. 4.1.2 to the one in Fig. 4.2.2. In this new architecture, the rectifier is no longer needed. The power converter design is also significantly modified for the considered dc distribution system. First, the rectifier stage is no longer needed. This implies a reduction of cost as well as an improvement of the efficiency and the mean time between failures. The next section detail the design considerations when re-designing the main parts of the appliances which is the power supply scheme. AC Home Appliance DC Home Appliance Re-engineering aspects of the AC devices for DC supply Identification of major re-engineering aspects of the AC devices for DC supply Comparative analysis of DC/AC supply in terms of reliability, PQ and efficiency Comparing efficiency of AC/DC and DC/DC power converters It is beyond this research to compare and contrast the actual efficiency of and raw material used in, conventional AC to DC converters and low powered modern DC to DC converters. However AC to DC converters employ copper wound metal transformers and other electrical components, while modern DC to DC converters employ electronic components. It is therefore understood that less energy will be lost in a DC to DC conversion of 24V to 5V than an AC to DC conversion of 230V to 5V. It is also obvious that AC to DC converters use up more raw materials in their manufacture than the DC to DC converters. Comparison of the cost benefit of manufacturing the DC devices against AC devices are analyzed When we compare a single appliance who operates in DC with and without adapter the appliance who has adapter uses more raw material than the one who do not have adapter (this can be easily seen in mobile charge, laptop charger etc…). This will reduce the overall appliance size and manufacturing cost. In general there are two types of AC adapters, the first is the black boxes which are combined within the plugs attached to most electronic and some electrical appliances. These are sometimes called external AC power supplies. The second is incorporated into the appliance on certain parts of the casing of the appliance and that section feels warmer than the rest of the casing, behind this spot is the AC adapter. This is called the internal AC power supply. They inherently use up energy while they work and in most cases, even while the appliance is not operational as long as it is connected to the electricity supply, electricity is still flowing through the adapter and energy is still being consumed. AC to DC converters employ copper wound metal transformers and other electrical components, while modern DC to DC converters employ electronic components. It is therefore understood that less energy will be lost in a DC to DC conversion. It is also obvious that AC to DC converters use up more raw materials in their manufacture than the DC to DC converters. DC supply from photovoltaic (PV) Chapter 5 Design and Simulations 5.1 Solar PV System Design Considerations Based on the electric energy production, PV modules can be arranged into arrays to increase electric output. Solar PV systems are generally classified based on their functional and operational requirements, their component configurations. It can be classified into grid-connected and stand-alone systems. For this study let us consider a Stand-Alone Solar PV System are chosen. Stand-alone PV systems or direct coupled PV systems are designed and sized to supply DC. The DC output of a PV module or array is connected to a DC load through electrical energy storage (batteries) as because of that, the load can operates during sunlight hours and night hours. The Figure below shows the general block diagram of the stand-alone solar PV system. Fig. 5.1- General block diagram of the stand-alone solar PV system The solar PV array configuration, a DC load with battery backup have a few additional components that are required to provide battery charge stability than the one without the battery. PV panels are connected in series to obtain the desired increase in DC voltage, such as 12, 24, or 48 V. The charge controller regulates the current output and prevents the voltage level from exceeding the maximum value for charging the batteries. The output of the charge controller is connected to the battery bank by means of a dual DC cutoff disconnect. Apart from this a cutoff switch can be provided, when turned off for safety measures, disconnects the load and the PV arrays simultaneously. During the sunshine hours, the load is supplied with DC power while simultaneously charging the battery. The controller will ensure that the DC power output from the PV arrays should be adequate to sustain the connected load while sizing the batteries. Battery bank sizing depends on a number of factors, such as the duration of an uninterrupted power supply to the load when there is less or no radiation from the sun. When designing a solar PV system with a battery backup, appropriate location for the battery racks and room ventilation must be determined. 5.1.1 PV Module Performance Measurements Peak watt rating is a key performance measurement of PV module. The peak watt (Wp) rating is determined by measuring the maximum power of a PV module under laboratory Standard Test Conditions (STC). Solar arrays can provide specific amount of electricity under certain conditions. In order to determine array performance, following factors to be considered characterization of solar cell electrical performance degradation factors related to array design assembly, conversion of environmental considerations into solar cell operating temperatures and Array power output capability. The following performance criteria determines the amount of PV output. Power Output – Power output is represented in watts and it is the power available at the charge controller/regulator specified either as peak power or average power produced during one day. Energy Output – Energy Output indicates the amount of energy produced during a certain period of time and it is represented in Wh/m2. Conversion Efficiency – It is defined as energy output from array to the energy input from sun. It is also referred as power efficiency and it is equal to power output from array to the power input from sun. Power is typically given in units of watts (W), and energy is typical in units of watt-hours (Wh). 5.1.2 Batteries in PV Systems Selecting the suitable battery for a PV application depends on many factors. Considerations in battery subsystem design include the number of batteries is series and parallel, over-current and disconnect requirements, and selection of the proper wire sizes and types. The energy output from the Solar PV systems is generally stored in a battery or in a battery bank deepening upon the requirements of the system. The primary functions of the battery in a PV system are (a) Energy Storage Capability and Autonomy to store electrical energy when it is produced by the PV array and to supply energy to electrical loads as needed or on demand. (b) Voltage and Current Stabilization to supply power to electrical loads at stable voltages and currents, by suppressing or smoothing out transients that may occur in PV systems. (c) Supply Surge Currents to supply surge or high peak operating currents to electrical loads or appliances. 5.1.3 Charge Controller A charge controller, charge regulator or battery regulator limits the rate at which electric current is added to or drawn from electric batteries. It prevents overcharging and may prevent against overvoltage, which can reduce battery performance or lifespan, and may pose a safety risk. Solar Charge Controllers are the controllers which regulate the power output or the DC output voltage of the solar PV panels to the batteries. Charge controllers take the DC output voltage as the input voltage converts it into same DC voltage required for battery charging. 5.2 MATLAB Model of Solar PV The solar system configuration consists of a required number of solar photovoltaic cells, commonly referred to as PV modules, connected in series or in parallel to attain the required voltage output. Cells connected in parallel increase the current and cells connected in series provide greater output voltages. All PV array datasheets bring basically the nominal open-circuit voltage (Voc,n), the nominal short-circuit current (Isc,n), the voltage at the MPP (Vmp), the current at the MPP (Imp), the open-circuit voltage/temperature coefficient (KV), the short circuit current/temperature coefficient (KI), and the maximum experimental peak output power (Pmax,e). 5.3 MATLAB Model of the appliance with DC Supply 5.3.1 Refrigerator 5.3.2 Washing Machine 5.3.3 Food Processor 5.3.4 Mobile Charger 5.3.5 LED light Chapters 6 Conclusions/Recommendations 6.1 General Conclusion A peak daily energy and energy usage per year was calculated, which can be used to size the renewable energy generators. Benefits of using DC instead of AC Energy Saving While most appliances internally powered by DC they are generally manufactured and sold with AC plugs which requires an AC to DC converter. This converters are constructed using transformers, inverter, filter and regulator therefore they use energy as long as they are connected to electric supply even if the appliance is in standby mode this can be demonstrated by the heating of the adapter. The less you need to convert between AC and DC, the less energy will go to waste. Shrinking power supplies When we compare a single appliance who operates in DC with and without adapter the appliance who has adapter uses more raw material than the one who do not have adapter (this can be easily seen in mobile charge, laptop charger etc…). This will reduce the overall appliance size and manufacturing cost. No 50 Hz hum Im sure most of you know what this sounds like from a faulty light switch, an older device with poor power supplies or even by sticking a fork in the wall. The native frequency of power coming out of the wall is 50Hz. This is something thatwe all have HYPERLINK http// to deal with at homeand that all electronics designs have to deal with. With an all DC system there would be other issues such as power filtering and voltage stability no hum though 6.2 Recommendation DC appliance safety problems Input polarity correction circuit which can automatically correct the polarity at the moment of plug in. Heavy load control board suitable for DC home appliance for DC breaking ability to enhance the safety. The transient state of DC plugging in/out Inrush Current reduction technique for DC Home appliances DC appliance model to suit dc distribution system DC safety standards that should be complemented for eliminating risk caused by distribution system change 6.3 Future Work Work Plan TasksMonthAugust 2017September 2017October 2017November 2017December 2017January 2018February 2018March 2018April 2018May 2018Week 1 2 3 4 1 2 3 4 1 2 3 4 1 2 3 4 1 2 3 4 1 2 3 4 1 2 3 4 1 2 3 4 1 2 3 4 1 2 3 4Literature reviewStudy Proposal Preparation2.1 Proposal preparation2.2 Proposal Defense Data collectionFrom Primary Data SourcesFrom Secondary Data SourcesData AnalysisSub activity 1 (eg. Appliance selection)Sub activity 2 (eg. Simulation and testing)Sub activity 3 (eg. Result interpretation)DocumentationDraft Report submissionFinal Report submission Budget Plan TasksBudget EstimateUnitQuantityUnit PriceTotal costLiterature review Stationary expenses (pen, paper, notebook, etc.) Miscellaneous expenses (photocopy, print, internet etc)Per month2300.00600.002. Study Proposal Preparation Stationary expenses (pen, paper, notebook, etc.) Miscellaneous expenses (photocopy, print, internet etc)Per month2750.001500.002.1 Proposal preparation2.2 Proposal Defense 3. Data collection Stationary expenses (pen, paper, notebook, etc.) Miscellaneous expenses (photocopy, print, transport, telephone, internet, per dime etc)Per day45100.004500.003.1 From Primary Data Sources3.2 From Secondary Data Sources4. Data Analysis Materials costs (data recording device, input raw materials, software, etc.) Miscellaneous expenses (photocopy, print, transport, telephone, labor, etc)each31000.003000.004.1 Sub activity 1(e.g. material selection )4.2 Sub activity 2 (e.g. Simulation, component design and testing)Per day7525.001875.004.3 Sub activity 3 (e.g. Result interpretation)5. DocumentationStationary expenses (pen, paper, notebook, fixer, lead, flash, CD, publishing costs, etc.) Miscellaneous expenses (transport, labor, color print, print, binding etc)Per day3050.001500.00Draft Report submissionFinal Report submission Total Cost 12,975.00Reference 1 https// 2 Paajanen, Pertti Kaipia, Tero Partanen, Jarmo DC supply of low-voltage electricity appliances in residential buildings, Electricity Distribution – Part 1, 2009. CIRED2009. 20th International Conference and Exhibition on, vol., no., pp.1-4, 8-11 June 2009 3 Comparison of cost and efficiency of DC versus AC in office buildings Giuseppe A. Laudani, PhD Student, Imperial College London Paul D. Mitcheson, Imperial College London 4 2nd International Conference on Electrical, Computer Telecommunication Engineering (ICECTE) 8-10 December 2016, Rajshahi-6204, Bangladesh 978-1-5090-5785-6/16/31.00 2016 IEEE Feasibility Study of Low Voltage DC Distribution System for Residential Buildings in Bangladesh and Hybrid Home Appliance Design for Tropical Climate 6 https// PAGE MERGEFORMAT ii PAGE MERGEFORMAT xv 1 PAGE MERGEFORMAT 1 AC DC/AC Inverter DC Solar Cell Battery AC Supply From Grid DC Using Appliance DC DC/DC AC/DC Converter DC AC AC AC Using Appliance DC Solar Cell Battery DC AC/DC Converter AC Supply From Grid DC Using Appliance DC DC/DC DC AC Using Appliance AC DC/AC DC Charge Controller DC Loads Solar PV Array Battery 5_Wzmp-k_wi hu5 5
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