B

B.E. PROJECT ON
AUTOMATION OF IRRIGATION SYSTEM USING IOT
Submitted by
ABHISHEK KUMAR (408IC13)
ARUN YADAV (437IC14)
DEEPAK KUMAR JHA (447IC14)
GAURAV BHARDWAJ (458IC14)

( In partial fulfillment of B.E. (Instrumentation and Control Engineering) degree
of University of Delhi )

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Under the Guidance of
ASSOCIATE PROF. PIYUSH SAXENA

DIVISION OF INSTRUMENTATION AND CONTROL ENGINEERING
NETAJI SUBHAS INSTITUTE OF TECHNOL0GY
UNIVERSITY OF DELHI, DELHI

JUNE 2018

DEDICATION

We dedicate this thesis to our teacher and Indian farmers.
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ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS

It gives us a great sense of pleasure to present the report of the B.E Project
undertaken during B.E. Final Year. We owe special debt of gratitude to our supervisor ASSO.Prof. PIYUSH SAXENA, Department of Instrumentation and Control Engineering, NETAJI SUBHAS INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY for her constant support and guidance throughout the course of our work. Her sincerity, thoroughness and perseverance have been a constant source of inspiration for us. It is only her cognizant efforts that our endeavors have seen light of the day.
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DECLARATION

This is to certify that the project entitled, “Automation of Irrigation System Using IOT” by ABHISHEK KUMAR, ARUN YADAV, DEEPAK KUMAR JHA and GAURAV BHARDWAJ is a record of bonafide work carried out by us, in the Division of Instrumentation and Control Engineering, Netaji Subhas Institute of Technology, University of Delhi, New Delhi, in partial fulfillment of requirements for the award of the degree of Bachelor of Engineering in Instrumentation and Control Engineering, University of Delhi in the academic year 2018-2019.
The results presented in this thesis are original and have not been submitted to any other university in any form for the award of any other degree.

CERTIFICATE

This is to certify that the project entitled, “Automation of Irrigation System Using IOT” by ABHISHEK KUMAR, ARUN YADAV, DEEPAK KUMAR JHA and GAURAV BHARDWAJ is a record of bonafide work carried out by them, in the Division of Instrumentation and Control Engineering, Netaji Subhas Institute of Technology, University of Delhi, New Delhi, under our supervision and guidance in partial fulfillment of requirements for the award of the degree of Bachelor of Engineering in Instrumentation and Control Engineering, University of Delhi in the academic year 2018-2019.
The results presented in this thesis are original and have not been submitted to any other university in any form for the award of any other degree.

CERTIFICATE

This is to certify that the project entitled, “Automation of Irrigation System Using IOT” by ABHISHEK KUMAR, ARUN YADAV, DEEPAK KUMAR JHA and GAURAV BHARDWAJ is a record of bonafide work carried out by them, in the division of Instrumentation and Control Engineering, Netaji Subhas Institute of Technology, University of Delhi, New Delhi, in partial fulfillment of requirements for the award of the degree of Bachelor of Technology in Instrumentation and Control Engineering, University of Delhi in the academic year 2018-2019.

Prof. SMRITI SRIVASTAV
Head of the Division(ICE)
Division of Instrumentation and Control Engineering
Netaji Subhas Institute of Technology (NSIT)
Azad Hind Fauj Marg
Sector-3, Dwarka, New Delhi
PIN – 110078

PLAGIARISM REPORT

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ABSTRACT

Technology has always been great help to the society for reducing the work load and bring comfort to the lifestyle. We have come along with an novel idea that provide Automatic irrigation system to almost all types of crops and Gardening systems. Hence our project is an attempt to reduce the manpower in irrigation systems and make it Automatic. Currently the system is working for Rice crop but just by changing the values of set point of moisture and level it can work for any crop and plant.
The system is also capable of doing monitoring of the field by using the NODEMCU module
And show the values of output of sensors on the monitor screen. The Heart of the system is Arduino UNO R3 which is responsible of sending and receiving data from sensors an d NodeMCU.

LIST OF TABLES

Table 2.1: Different Arduino Boards 28
Table 2.2:Atmega 328P pin description 36
Table 2.3:Features of Atmega 328P 38
Table 3.1:Pin description of FC-28 45
Table 5.1: ESP8266 pin description 72
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LIST OF FIGURES

Figure 1.1: Basic block diagram 17
Figure 1.2:Drip irrigators 21
Figure 1.3:Monitoring process waveform 24
Figure 2.1: Arduino board 29
Figure 2.2:Atmega 328P pin diagram. 35
Figure 2.3: Arduino architecture. 41
Figure 3.2:Soil moisture sensor FC-28. 47
Figure 3.3: Silver aluminium probe. 49
Figure 3.4: Soil sensor pin layout. 51
Figure 3.5: Soil sensor connection diagram. 52
Figure 3.6:Female jumpers wire 53
Figure 3.7:FC-28 installation diagram. 55
Figure 4.1:Sonar senor 58
Figure 4.2:Working of ultrasound. 62
Figure 4.3:HC-SR04 pin layout. 65
Figure 5.1:ESP8266 68
Figure 5.2:ESP8266 pin diagram 70
Figure 5.3:NODEMCU DEV KIT. 72
Figure 5.4:ESP8266 types 74
Figure 5.5:NODEMCU development board pin layout 75

LIST OF ABBREVIATIONS AND SYMBOLS

If you do not have any symbols, abbreviations, or specific nomenclature in your thesis, you do not need to fill out this table.

Symbol Definition

V Frequency

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INDEX OF EQUATIONS

Equation Caption Page

Equation 4.2 Capacitence level measurement 54
Equation 4.3.3.2 Distance calculation from ultrasound 57

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TABLE OF CONTENTS

DEDICATION 1
ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS 2
DECLARATION 3
CERTIFICATE 4
CERTIFICATE 5
ABSTRACT 7
LIST OF TABLES 8
LIST OF FIGURES 9
LIST OF ABBREVIATIONS AND SYMBOLS 10
INDEX OF EQUATIONS……………………………………………………………… 11
CONCLUSION………………………………………………………………………… 74
RESULT…………………………………………………………………………………75.
APPENDIX………………………………………………………………………………79
REFERENCES 83
TABLE OF CONTENTS 12

CHAPTER 1: INTRODUCTION 16
1.1: Introduction 16
1.1.1 Block Diagram……………………………………………………………..17
1.1.2 Description of Block Diagram……………………………………………..17
1.1.3 calculation of Transfer Function……………………………………………18
1.2 Types of Irrigation system…………………………………………………………….20
1.2.1 Drip irrigators…………………………………………………………………21
1.3 Monitoring and measurement process…………………………………………………22
1.4 Equipments used………………………………………………………………………..23
1.4.1 Hardware used……………………………………………………………….23
1.4.2 software used…………………………………………………………………24
1.5 Installation………………………………………………………………………………24
CHAPTER 2: ARDUINO…………………………………………………………………..26
2.1 introduction……………………………………………………………………………..26
2.1.1 Meaning of term arduino………………………………………………………..27
2.1.2 Arduino boards………………………………………………………………….27
2.2 Boards used……………………………………………………………………………..28
2.2.1 Reasons to choose arduino uno R3…………………………………………….28
2.2.2 components of Arduino………………………………………………………..29
2.3 Arduino Advantages……………………………………………………………………38
2.4 Arduino Archetecture……………………………………………………………………40
2.5 programming of Arduino…………………………………………………………………41
2.6 Making of Arduino………………………………………………………………………42
CHAPTER 3: MOISTURE MEASUREMENT……………………………………………..43
3.1 soil moisture sensor……………………………………………………………………..43
3.1.1 Features………………………………………………………………………..43
3.1.2 Abbrevations…………………………………………………………………..44
3.1.3 Specifications…………………………………………………………………44
3.2 Using the sensor…………………………………………………………………………44
3.3 working………………………………………………………………………………….45
3.4 High sensitvity moisture sensor…………………………………………………………46
3.4.1 Description…………………………………………………………………….46
3.4.2 Features………………………………………………………………………..48
3.4.3 Pin definitions…………………………………………………………………50
3.5 Examples……………………………………………………………………………….52
CHAPTER 4: WATER EVEL MEASUREMENTS……………………………………….55
4.1 Basic level measurements……………………………………………………………….55
4.2 capacitive level measurements………………………………………………………….55
4.3 Ultrasonic water level sensor……………………………………………………………56
4.3.1 Introduction……………………………………………………………………56
4.3.2 About Ultrasound……………………………………………………………..57
4.3.3 Distance calculation…………………………………………………………..58
4.4 Types of ultrasonic sensors…………………………………………………………….59
4.4.1 Proximity Detection…………………………………………………………..59
4.4.2 Ranging Measurements………………………………………………………..59
4.4.3 Migration in ultrasonic sensing……………………………………………….59
4.5 Migration Advantage……………………………………………………………………59
4.6 Typical Applications…………………………………………………………………….60
4.6.1 Tank level…………………………………………………………………….60
4.6.2 Production line sensor……………………………………………………….60
4.6.3 Distance Measurements……………………………………………………..61
4.6.4 Application using Migration Ultrasonic sensor……………………………..61
4.7 Use of ultrasonic sensor in Industry……………………………………………………..62
4.7.1 Use in medicine………………………………………………………………63
4.8 Pin Description…………………………………………………………………………..64
CHAPTER 5: NODEMCU…………………………………………………………………..65
5.1 Introduction………………………………………………………………………………65
5.1.1Definition of Node MCU…………………………………………………….65
5.1.2 Esp8266……………………………………………………………………..65
5.2 Nodemcu Development Board………………………………………………………….69
5.2.1 Arduino with IOT……………………………………………………………70
5.2.2 Development board…………………………………………………………71
5.2.3 Differnce between first and second nodemcu development board…………72
5.2.4 nodemcu development kit used in IOT project…………………………….72
5.3 Nodemcu Development kit version 1.0 pin layut………………………………………73
5.4 Nodemcu DEV it version 1.0pin Description……………………………………………73
5.5 Programming of Nodemcu Development Board …..74

IRRIGATION SYSTEM

1.1 Introduction
Irrigation system is a process to feed required amount of moisture to the plants and crops. In this project the exact amount of moisture Required by an particular crop has been taken as an input parameter to the system.
Reference input moisture is given as second input to the adder subtractor And then both are given to an preinstalled and programmed AND gate which is then feedback to Arduino.
Arduino and microprocessors outputs are then working as an input to pump and motors which in turn controlling the operation of both the sensors.
• Block Diagram of the system.

• Design of process and transfer function.

Both are shown below.

1.1.1 Block Diagram
Figure 1.1 Basic Block Diagram

1.1.2 Description of block Diagram
* First moisture sensor will measure the moisture content of the soil and the compare this value to the threshold value given as set point.
* If the measured value by moisture sensor is less then set point then it will give output 1 to the AND gate.
* Now level sensor will also measure the level of water above the surface of earth andcompare it with threshold value given as set point.
* If the measured value is less then set point then it will give output 1to the AND gate.
* Now if both the inputs received by the AND gate is 1 then it will give input to the Arduino as 1 at the Motor port microprocessor.
* This will make pump to be ON. Now the moment upto which the pump is ON it will send ON signal to both of the sensors.
* The sensors will keep Measuring the values of the parameters till both the measured valuesand set values become Equal.

1.1.3 Calculation of Transfer Function
Both level and moisture sensor have been taken as first order elements and the Arduino is assumed to provide an gain of Ka value.
Also as the input to the pump is an Resultant of AND component of both the sensors so the gain of AND gate is taken as unity.
The pump is behaving as an second order element.
Overall Transfer function is as shown below:

1.2 Types of Irrigation System
Different types of irrigation system are present based on the requirements and design of the fields. But mainly there are only two types of irrigation systems.
• Low flow irrigation system

• High flow irrigation system

• Low flow irrigation system mainly involves micro spray, drip irrigators, And Drip lines.

1.2.1 Drip Irrigators : Drip lines are flexible tubing with emitters evenly spaced along the tubing. Drip lines are also called inline drip or subsurface drip. Some drip lines may be placed on top of the ground with an emitter. A subsurface drip line (underground) can be used to irrigate ground covers. Installation can occur before (inground) or after (above ground) for groundcovers.

For individual emitter layouts, water is delivered just where plants need it. This can reduce the area for, and number of, weeds in the garden. As shown in the figure.

Fig 1.2

Overhead irrigators : In this a uniform amount of water is sprinkled Over a particular specified area. There are certain specifications needed to use it over the field.
• Sprinkler and other devices must have same precipitation rates. Specific sprinklers (gear driven rotors) and sprinkler nozzles (stream rotors, like the Hunter MP Rotator) reduce the amount of water delivered and allow the soil to absorb the water.

1.3 Monitoring and Measurement Process
Monitoring is an Integral part of any Instrumentation system for its establishment and
improvement. In earlier systems the Monitoring was done by the plant designer directly
from the process.
But now Monitoring of any process can be done by using web services and that is called
as IOT based Monitoring Process.
By using ESP8266 module the output Data of sensors can be directly send to server.
The monitoring process is depicted in this figure.

So first output from both moisture sensors and level sensors are taken and then directly
transmitted to ESP8266 module.
Then IOT( ESP8266) module will read the data in digital form due to preinstalled analog to digital converter in it and then then by using the internet service provided the user of the instrument the module will send the data to the Web.
The web address provided will also be stored in the microprocessor unit Of IOT module.
The web address used here is of online Matlab platform. Hence all the data will be sent to the same web address.

The monitoring process done over here is Time based that is one can easily observe the values of the sensor outputs at any time as shown below :

Fig 1.3
(At any point of time both the sensors output can be monitored)

1.4 Equipments used
For the designing and working of Automation Irrigation system with monitoring process using IOT both Hardware and software are used thathas been Listed below.

1.4.1 Hardware used
* Soil Moisture sensor fc-28
* HC-SR04 Ping sensor for water level measurement
* Arduino Uno
* ESP8266 IOT module
* Breadboard
* Relay Sequencer
* Motor Pump
* Connecting wires

1.4.2 Software used
*Arduino IDE
* Matlab

1.5 Installation
Installation refers to setting of parameters and other variable terms of the system according to the plant or field. The project can work for all types of crops but the parameters required need to be adjusted according to the field and particular type of crop.
Installation of monitoring part becomes difficult in extreme rural areas due to unavailability of Internet Network services.
In this project Installation is mainly done in three steps:

• Placing the Hardware components at the Requisite position on Field.

• Adjusting the parameters like moisture and level Required for

particular plant.

• Connecting the system with Internet Network for Monitoring

process.

Chapter Two: ARDUINO

2.1 Introduction
2.1.1 Meaning of Term Arduino
Arduino is a platform used for making electronics projects. Arduino consist of two
units in whole , one is the physical or hardware programmable circuit board (often
referred to as microcontroller) and second is the piece of software, or IDE (Integrated
development environment) that runs on computer used to write and upload computer code to the physical board.
Arduino works as brain of the projects made on it ,and act as the controller of the project.
Arduino was first made at Ivera interaction Design Institute as an easy tool for fast
connections for students without a background in electronics and programming.
Unlike most older programmable circuits boards the arduino does not require a separate
partof hardware in order to program a new code onto board you can just use a USB cable.
Arduino uses a basic version of c++ , making it simpler to learn the program. Arduino
boards offers a typical form factor that breaks out the function of microcontroller into a
more variable package.

2.1.2 ARDUINO BOARDS
There are different types of arduino boards available according to the processor,
memory, digital I/O, analog I/O used in these boards.

The list of arduino board include :
*Arduino Uno(R3) *Lilypad Arduino *Red Board *Arduino Mega(R3)
*Arduino Leonardo
Arduino Board Processor Memory Digital I/O Analogue I/O
Arduino Uno 16Mhz ATmega328 2KB SRAM, 32KB flash 14 6 input, 0 output
Arduino Due 84MHz AT91SAM3X8E 96KB SRAM, 512KB flash 54 12 input, 2 output
Arduino Mega 16MHz ATmega2560 8KB SRAM, 256KB flash 54 16 input, 0 output
Arduino Leonardo 16MHz ATmega32u4 2.5KB SRAM, 32KB flash 20 12 input, 0 output

TABLE 2.1(Different Arduino Boards)

The term “open source hardware” in defining of arduino means that these arduino boards
can be modified further for more form factors and functionality. There can be more
derivatives of these boards.

2.2 Board Used (Arduino Uno R3)

2.2.1 Reason To Choose Arduino Uno :
The Arduino Uno R3 is a best choice for us because it is the best for the students to get started initially in this field of Arduino.
It has got everything which are useful for initial start such has 14 digital input/output
pins out of these 14 pins, 6 can be used as PWM output pins. 6 Analog input pins, a
USB connection , Power Jack, Reset Button , Power Led Indicator, TX RX Leds, Main
IC, Voltage ,Regulator.
2.2.2 Components of Arduino
FIGURE 2.1(ARDUINO BOARD)
1) Power USB (USB Connector)
Power USB acts as a way to connect the power source with Arduino . If the power supply is coming from the USB then we use power USB as a connector.
It is also used to load code into Arduino board.
2) Barrel Jack (Power Connector)
Barrel Jack is also used as a way to connect power source with Arduino . If the power
supply is coming from wall power then we use Barrel Jack as a connector.
Do not use the power supply greater than 20 volts. If the supply is greater than 20 volts there is overpowering of Aduino and due to this Arduino can destroy.
Suitable operating voltage for most Arduino boards is between 6 and 12 volts.
PINS
The pins are the places on Arduino where we connect the wire coming from breadboard
in order to implement a circuit.
Made up of black plastics headers that allows you to just plug a wire right into the board.
3) Ground Pins (GND)
There are two ground pins on Arduino which are used to ground the circuit we are
making on breadboard.
4) 5V Pin
The 5V pin supplies a power of 5 volt which is used to drive different components
such as sensors.
5) 3.3V Pin
The 3.3V pin supplies a power of 3.3 volt which is used to drive different components
such as sensors.
6) Analog Pins
The Analog pins as shown in Arduino given by “Analog In” from pin A0 to pin A5 on
UNO used only as Analog input pins.
The pins are used to read signal/values from the the Analog sensor and convert it to a digital value that is understandable by microcontroller of Arduino.
Each of analog input pins provide 10 bits of resolution(i.e 1024 different values of sensor).
By default they measure from ground to 5 volts though it is possible to change upper end of this range by using AREF pin.
A4 and A5 are also known as SDA(Serial data) and SCL(Serial clock) pins for TWI
communication using wire library. These are the two wires for communicate using I2C
bus between I2C master and I2C device , and hence communication is know as Two
wire interface.

7) Digital Pins
The Digital pins as shown in Arduino given by “Digital (PWM~)” from pin 0 to pin
13 on UNO can be used in both ways as Digital input pins or Digital output pins. Out of
these 14 pins some are also used as PWM output pins, Interrupts pins(2 and 3) to trigger
interrupt at low values or rising edge or falling edge or due to change in value, pin 13 an
inbuilt led and TX RX pins(used for serial communication).

8) PWM Pins
The PWM output pins denoted by the symbol of “~” with the some of the Digital pins on UNO. These pins are 5, 6, 9, 10, 11 on UNO.
These pins normally acts as Digital pins but can also be used as PWM pins. The pulse
width modulation allow us to vary how much time the signal is high in analog fashion.
The PWM pins are able to simulate analog output.

9) Analog Reference(AREF)
AREF pins used to set an external refrence voltage as an limit for the Analog input
pins.

10) Reset Button
The Reset Button on Arduino will act as a switch. When the switch is pressed it will
temporarily connects the Reset pin to the ground and restart any code that is loaded in
arduino at that time.
This pin can be very useful if your code does not repeat but you want to test it multiple
times.
Reset button will reset microcontroller when low.
11) Power Led Indicator
The Power led indicator is the small led located just below the point on the Board
where UNO is written.
This led always light up whenever we plug the Arduino to the Power source. If this light
does not turn on there is a good chance that there is a fault in the circuit.
12) TX RX LEDs
The word TX stands for transmitter and RX stands for receiver. These types of
definition of TX and RX are frequently used in electronics to indicate pins responsible
for serial communication.
In this Arduino board there are two times these TX and RX appear i.e one time by the
digital pins 0 and 1 , and second times on the indicator leds.
These Leds will provide the information when the Arduino is transmitting data or
receiving data by glowing that Led at the moment (for ex : when we are loading new
program onto the board RX led will glow).

13) MAIN IC (Microcontroller IC ATMEGA328)
The black thing with metal legs is know as the main IC also known as ATmega328 is a microcontroller which is the Brain of arduino. The IC is made by ATMEL.
Main focus to understand that the Arduino board includes a microcontroller, and this
microcontroller is what executes the program instruction. If you know this the there is
a difference between Arduino and ATmega328.
The ATmega328 microcontroller is the microcontroller used in Arduino UNO as a
controller. ATmega328 belongs to family AVR , it is an 8-bit device means it has data
bus of 8 bit, internal registers are designed to handle 8 parallel data signals.

ATmega328 has three types of memory:

*Flash memory: 32KB nonvolatile memory.(for storing codes)

*SRAM memory: 2KB volatile memory.(for storing variables used at time of running the code)

*EEPROM memory: 1KB nonvolatile memory.(for storing data that will be needed Arduino is switched on)

?Pin diagram of Atmega328

FIGURE 2.2(ATMEGA 328P PIN DIAGRAM)
Pin Number Description Function
1 PC6 Reset
2 PD0 Digital Pin (RX)
3 PD1 Digital Pin (TX)
4 PD2 Digital Pin
5 PD3 Digital Pin (PWM)
6 PD4 Digital Pin
7 Vcc Positive Voltage (Power)
8 GND Ground
9 XTAL 1 Crystal Oscillator
10 XTAL 2 Crystal Oscillator
11 PD5 Digital Pin (PWM)
12 PD6 Digital Pin (PWM)
13 PD7 Digital Pin
14 PB0 Digital Pin
15 PB1 Digital Pin (PWM)
16 PB2 Digital Pin (PWM)
17 PB3 Digital Pin (PWM)
18 PB4 Digital Pin
19 PB5 Digital Pin
20 AVCC Positive voltage for ADC (power)
21 AREF Reference Voltage
22 GND Ground
23 PC0 Analog Input
24 PC1 Analog Input
25 PC2 Analog Input
26 PC3 Analog Input
27 PC4 Analog Input
28 PC5 Analog Input

TABLE 2.2(ATMEGA 328P PIN DESCRIPTION)
?Features Of Atmega328

CPU 8-bit AVR
Number of Pins 28
Operating Voltage (V) +1.8 V TO +5.5V
Number of programmable I/O lines 23
Communication Interface Master/Slave SPI Serial Interface(17,18,19 PINS) Can be used for programming this controller
Programmable Serial USART(2,3 PINS) Can be used for programming this controller
Two-wire Serial Interface(27,28 PINS)Can be used to connect peripheral devices like Servos, sensors and memory devices
JTAG Interface Not available
ADC Module 6channels, 10-bit resolution ADC
Timer Module Two 8-bit counters with Separate Prescaler and compare mode, One 16-bit counter with Separate Prescaler,compare mode and capture mode.
Analog Comparators 1(12,13 PINS)
DAC Module Nil
PWM channels 6
External Oscillator 0-4MHz @ 1.8V to 5.5V
0-10MHz @ 2.7V to 5.5V
0-20MHz @ 4.5V to 5.5V
Internal Oscillator 8MHz Calibrated Internal Oscillator
Program Memory Type Flash
Program Memory or Flash memory 32Kbytes10000 write/erase cycles
CPU Speed 1MIPS for 1MHz
RAM 2Kbytes Internal SRAM
EEPROM 1Kbytes EEPROM
Watchdog Timer Programmable Watchdog Timer with Separate On-chip Oscillator
Program Lock Yes
Power Save Modes Six ModesIdle, ADC Noise Reduction, Power-save, Power-down, Standby and Extended Standby
Operating Temperature -40°C to +105°C(+105 being absolute maximum, -40 being absolute minimum)

TABLE 2.3(FEATURES OF ATMEGA 328P)
14) Crystal Oscillator

The silver colour plate behind barrel jack is known as crystal oscillator. Crystal
oscillator is available with a frequency of 16 MHZ.
In Our project we have main use of this oscillator in calculating time taken by the
level sensor signal in twice leg travel ,first leg before deflection from object and
second leg after deflection from the object.

14) Voltage Regulator
The work of voltage regulator is similar as it name suggest. It will fix the voltage
entering the Arduino. If the voltage greater thanvoltage given by voltage regulator trys to
enter Arduino , it will be stopped by this Voltage regulator.

15) Icsp pin
Icsp pin generally consist of MOSI, MISO, RESET, VCC, GND, SCK all these
things together makes icsp pin which is nothing but AVR (small program header for
arduino).
The oher name given to iscp pin is SPI(serial peripheral interface). SPI can be taken as
expansion of the output. The output device is a slave to the master of SPI bus which is
used for programming this microcontroller.

2.3 Arduino Advantages
1) Inexpensive: Due to this less cost of Arduino can be used by students easily to make DIY PROJECTS.
2)Less hardware: During the period of code uploading it does not require extra
hardware, uses a boot loader of 0.5 kb of space which allow program to burn directly to
ckt.
3)Compatibility : Can be used with all types of operating system such as windows, linux etc.
4)Open Source Hardware : This is the thing which help the user to make their individual kit by taking guide with available kit.
5)Open Source Software : This is the thing which help the programmers to merge the
Arduino code with existing programming language libraries.

6)Convenient : All the peoples who are using arduino for the first time it is easy to
understand and people get used to it in less time due to this quality.
Therefore people who are starting from their first project are generally advised to work on Arduino than any other microntroller.

7)Easy Connections : The uno can be connected easily with the computer cpu by using the usb port of cpu and can transfer code by using serial communication.
The serial communication is decided by the transmitter and receiver pins on the Arduino.

2.4 Arduino Architecture

FIGURE 2.3(ARDUINO ARCHITECTURE)
Arduino processor uses the architecture in which the program code and program data
have individual separate memory. There are two memories one is program memory and
the other one is data memory.

The code is stored in the memory which is known as flash program memory and the
data is stored in the data memory.
Atmega 328 has 32kb of flash memory for storing code out of this 32kb , 0.5kb is used
for the storing code by the bootloader, 2kb of SRAM, 1kb of EEPROM and operates
with clock speed of 15MHZ.

2.5 Programming of Arduino
In Arduino is the program can be directly loaded to the device without usng any
hardware programmer to burn the program, this all is done by 0.5kb bootloader which
makes the program to burn into the circuit directly.
All we need for direct loading is Arduino software IDE on which code is written.

?STEPS TO PROGRAM ARDUINO
1) Declaration of variables.
2) Inialization: written in setup() function.
3) Control code: written in loop() function.
4) Sketch is saved with .ino extension.(in sketch book directory).
5) Choose the proper board from tool menu and the serial port number. And then click
6) on the upload button then code uploaded by bootloader onto the microcontroller.
?Arduino Basic Functions
• digitalRead(pin): Reads the digital value at the given pin.

• digitalWrite(pin, value): Writes the digital value to the given pin.

• pinMode(pin, mode): Sets the pin to input or output mode.

• analogRead(pin): Reads and returns the value.

• analogWrite(pin, value): Writes the value to that pin.

• serial.begin(baud rate): Sets the beginning of serial communication by setting the bit rate.

2.6 Making of Arduino

Parts needed to make an Arduino are Breadboard, a Led, a Power Jack, a IC socket, a Microcontroller atmega328, few resistors , 2 capacitors, 2 regulators.

?STEPS TO MAKE

1) First of all put Power Jack and IC socket on board by soldering.

2) Then by using capacitor and regulators make 5v and 3.3 v regulator ckts.

3) Make power connection to MCU pins.

4) The reset pin of IC socket attached with 10k resistor and then to reset puch button.

5) Attach crystal oscillator to pins 9, 10.

6) Connect the Power led.

7) Attach the pins with female headers.

8) Alternative should be kept with 6 male headers to upload program.

9) Upload the code on MCU of readymade Arduino.

Chapter Three : MOISTURE MEASUREMENT

3.1 Soil Moisture Sensor

This sensor can be used to test the moisture of soil, when soil is having water shortage, the module output is at high level, else the output is at low level. By using this sensor one can automatically water the flower plant, or any otherplants requiring automatic watering technique. Module triple output mode, digital output is simple, analog output more accurate, serial output with exact readings.

3.1.1 Features

Sensitivity adjustable.

Has fixed bolt hole, convenient installation.

Threshold level can be configured.

Module triple output mode, digital output is simple, analog output more accurate,
serial output with exact readings.

3.1.2 Applications

Agriculture
Landscape irrigation

3.1.3 Specifications

Parameter Value
Operating Voltage +5v dc regulated
Soil moisture Digital value is indicated by out pin

Table 3.1 (pin description of fc-28)

3.2 Using The Sensor

Connect +5v to pin 2 and ground to pin 5 and 6.

Pin 4 and 5 should be connected to particular transmitter and receiver pin of
controller.

Output pin may be connected to any port pins and can be used to any application.
3.3 Working

Soil moisture sensors measure the water content in soil. A soil moisture probe is made up of multiple soil moisture sensors. One common type of soil moisture sensors in commercial use is a Frequency domain sensor such as a capacitance sensor. Another sensor, the neutron moisture gauge, utilize the moderator properties of water for neutrons.

Soil moisture content may be determined via its effect on dielectric constant by measuring the capacitance between two electrodes implanted in the soil. Where soil moisture is predominantly in the form of free water (e.g., in sandy soils), the dielectric constant is directly proportional to the moisture content. The probe is normally given a frequency excitation to permit measurement of dielectric constant. The readout from the probe is not linear with water content and is influenced by soil type and soil temperature. Therefore, careful calibration is required and long-term stability of the calibration is questionable

In This sensor We are using 2 Probes to be dipped into the Soil As per Moisture We will get
Analog Output variations from 0.60volts – 5volts
Input Voltage 5V DC.

3.4 High Sensitivity Moisture Sensor

Figure 3.2(soil moisture sensor fc 28)

3.4.1 Description:

This Moisture Sensor uses Immersion Gold which protects the nickel from oxidation. Electroless nickel immersion gold (ENIG) has several advantages over more conventional (and cheaper) surface platings such as HASL (solder), including excellent surface planarity (particularly helpful for PCB’s with large BGA packages), good oxidation resistance, and usability for untreated contact surfaces such as membrane switches and contact points.
This Moisture Sensor can read the amount of moisture present in the soil surrounding it. It’s a low tech sensor, but ideal for monitoring an urban garden, or your pet plant’s water level. This is a must have tool for a connected garden.

This Moisture Sensor can be used to detect the moisture of soil or judge if there is water around the sensor, let the plants in your garden reach out for human help. They can be very to use, just insert it into the soil and then read it. With help of this sensor, it will be realizable to make the plant remind you: Hey, I am thirsty now, please give me somewater.

This Moisture Sensor uses the two probes to pass current through the soil, and then it reads that resistance to get the moisture level. More water makes the soil conduct electricity more easily (less resistance), while dry soil conducts electricity poorly (more resistance).

It will be helpful to remind you to water your indoor plants or to monitor the soil moisture in your garden. The IO Expansion Shield is the perfect shield to connect this senor to Arduino.

This item have low power consumption, and high sensitivity, which are
the biggest characteristics of this mdoule.

This item can be compatible with Arduino UNOs Arduino mega2560s Arduino ADK etc.

Figure 3.3(SILVER ALUMINIUM PROBES)

3.4.2 Features:

1. Working voltage: 5V
2. Current: 300 ;; analogRead(5) 700){
Serial.println(“Too much water, I might get hurt”);
}
delay(200);

Figure 3.7(FC28 INSTALLATION DIAGRAM)

The moisture sensor will respond according to the inputs given to arduino through Arduino IDE.

Chapter 4: WATER LEVEL MEASUREMENT

4.1 BASIC LEVEL MEASUREMENT
For Few crops Like Rice a certain level of water must be present above the Ground level. Water
level above the ground can be measured by various Meathods :
• Capacitive level Measurement

• Ultrasonic water Level Measurement

• Water level sensor integrated circuit

4.2 Capacitive level measurement
This simply works upon the change in dielectric medium of the capacitor. Initially when
air is present the default capacitance value has been measured now upon installation in
field the dielectric changes from air to water thus results in change of capacitance which
works as function of level.

4.3 Ultrasonic Water level sensor

4.3.1 Introduction
As the indicate, ultrasonic sensor measures distance by using ultrasonic waves . the sensor head emits an ultrasonic wave and receives the wave reflected back from the target. Ultrasonic sensor measure the distance to the target by measuring the time between the emission and the reception.
An optical sensor has a transmitter and receiver, whereas ultrasonic sensor uses single oscillator emits and receives ultrasonic .waves alternatively. this enable miniaturization of the sensor head.

FIGURE 4.1(SONAR SENSOR)

4.3.2 About ultrasonic

Ultrasonic sensor are used around the world, indoors and outdoors in the harshest condition, for a variety of application. Our ultrasonic sensors, made with piezoelectric crystals, using high frequency sound to resonate a desire frequency and convert electric energy into acoustic energy, and acoustic energy into electric energy sound wave are transmitted to and reflected from target back to the transducer. Target can have anyreflective form, even around certain variables, such as target surface angle, changes in temperature and humidity, and reflective surface roughness, can affect the operation of the sensors.

4.3.3 Distance calculation
The distance can be calculated with using the following formula.

4.3.3.1 Distance L = ½ * T * C

Where L is the distance, T is the time between the emission and reception, and C is the sonic speed. (the value is multiplied by ½ because T is the time for go and return distance.
Features
Characteristics enable by the detection system are following.

4.3.3.2 Transparent object detectable
Since ultrasonic waves can reflect off a glass or liquid surface and return to the sensor head, even transparent target can be detected.
4.3.3.3 Resistant to mist and dirt
Detection is not affected by accumulation of dust or dirt.

4.3.3.4 Complex shaped object detectable
Presence detection is stable even for target such as mesh trays or spring.

4.4 Types of ultrasonic sensors :
4.4.1 Proximity detection
An object passing with in the preset range will be detected and generate an output signal. The detect point is independent of target size, material or reflectivity.

4.4.2 Ranging measurement
Precise distance of an object moving to and from the sensor are measured via time intervals between transmitted and reflected bursts of ultrasonic sound. Distance change is continuously calculated and outputted.

4.4.3 Migration in ultrasonic sensing
Migration has used the advance technology of ultrasonic sensing to solve an array of a problem across a wide range of industries since 1979. Our field tested products are capable of meeting unique needs with a variety of option to help you to find a solution. Tough and reliable, we have had sensor running 24 hours a day, 7 days a week since 1980 without fail.

4.5 Migration advantage

1) Resistance to external disturbances such as vibrations, infrared radiation, ambient noise and EMI radiation.

2) Measures and detect moving objects from discrete distances.

3) Can detect small object over long operating range.

4.6 Typical application :

4.6.1 Tank level
Liquid level sensor are integral to process control and inventory management in many industries.
At migration we engineer two type level sensors (proximity sensor) and continuous level sensor (analog sensor).the type of sensor are appropriate for our liquid level measurement.

4.6.2 Production line sensor
Ultrasonic sensor can be applied to the manufacturing process for automated process control on factory floor while also being an indispensable tool for company to maximize efficiency through precise measurement and control.
Ultrasonic sensor can streamline the production process.

FIGURE 4.2(WORKING OF ULTRASOUND)

4.6.3 Distance measurement
Ultrasonic sensor can measure the distance to a wide range of objects regardless of shape color or surface texture. They are also able to measure approaching or receding objects.

4.6.4 Application using migration ultrasonic sensor

1) loop control

2) roll diameter tension control, winding and unwind

3) liquid level control

4) beam detection for high speed counting

5) full detection

6) thread or wire break detection

7) robotic sensing

8) stacking height control

9) people detection for counting

10) contouring or profiling using ultrasonic system

4.7 Use of ultrasonic sensor in industry
Ultrasonic sensor can detect movement of targets and measure the distance to them in many automated factories and process plants. Sensor can have on or off digital output for detecting the movement of objects, or a analog output proportional to distance. They can sense the edge of material as web guiding system. Ultrasonic sensors are widely used in car as parking sensors to aid the driver in reversing into parking spaces. They are being tested for a number of other automotive uses including ultrasonic people detection and assisting in autonomous UAV navigation Because ultrasonic sensor are use sound rather than light detection, they work in application where photoelectric sensor may not.
Ultrasonic are great solution for clear object detection, clear label detection and for liquid level measurement, applications that photoelectric struggle with because of target translucence. As well, target color or reflectivity do not affect ultrasonic sensors, which can operate reliably in high glare environment.Passive ultrasonic sensor may be used to detect high pressure or liquid leaks, or other hazardous conditions that generate ultrasonic sound in these devices, audio from transducer (microphone) is converted down to human hearing range.
High power ultrasonic emitters are used in commercially available ultrasonic clearing devices. An ultrasonic transducer is affixed to a stainless steel pan which is filled with a solvent (frequently water or isopropanol). An electrical square wave feeds the transducer, creating sound in the solvent strong enough to cause cavitation.
Ultrasonic testing are widely used in metallurgy and engineering to evaluate corrosion, welds, and material defects using different types of scans.

4.7.1 Use in medicine
Medical ultrasonic probe come in variety of different shapes and sizes for usin making cross sectional images of various parts of the body the transducer may be passed over a surface in contact with the body. The transducer may be passed over the surface and in contact with the body, or inserted into body opening such as rectum or vagina. Clinicians who perform ultrasound guided procedures often use a probe positioning system to hold the ultrasonic transducer.
Air detection sensor are used in various roles non invasive air detection isfor the most critical situation where safety of patience is mandatory. Many of the variable which can affect the performance of the amplitude or continuous wave based sensing system, are eliminated or greatly reduced, thus yielding and repeatable detection.
One key principle of this technology is that the transmit signal consists of short bursts of ultrasonic energy. After each burst electron looks for a return signal with in small window of time corresponding to the time it take signal received during this period will qualify for additional signal processing. This principle is similar to radar range gating.
4.8 PIN DESCRIPTION:

FIGURE 4.3(HCSR04 PIN LAYOUT)

Chapter Five: NODEMCU

5.1 Introduction

5.1.1 Defination of NODEMCU
The word nodemcu is a microcontroller chip is also known as eLUA based firmware that consist of code repository for the ESP8266 wifi system on chip (soc) or microcontroller.
NODEMCU firmware is based on espressif non-os sdk 2.2.0 and communicate with other devices using serial communication.

5.1.2 ESP8266
ESP8266 is a wifi module or system on chip(soc) or microcontroller which is very
inexpensive and has an in-built support for wifi connectivity. ESP8266 consist of the
components that a modern computer have such as cpu, ram, networking, modern operating system and sdk.
ESP8266 is somewhat hard to access and we have to solder wires with appropriate analog voltage to its pin for simplest task such as power it on and sending a keystore to computer on chip.
Programming is done in low level machine instructions in esp8266 understandable by its
hardware.

?ESP8266 BLOCK DIAGRAM

ESP-12E WiFi module is ultra low power 32-bit MCU micro, with the 16-bit short mode, Clock speed support 80 MHz, 160 MHz . The module supports standard IEEE802.11 b/g/n agreement, complete TCP/IP protocol stack. Users can use the add modules to an existing device networking, or building a separate network controller. ESP8266 is high integration wireless SOCs, designed for space and power constrained mobile platform designers. It provides unsurpassed ability to embed Wi-Fi capabilities within other systems, or to function as a standalone application, with the lowest cost, and minimal space requirement.

FIGURE5.1(ESP8266)
?FEATURES
• 802.11 b/g/n(wifi protocol).
• Integrated low power 32-bit MCU.
• Integrated 10-bit ADC .
• Integrated TCP/IP protocol stack.
• Integrated TR switch, balun, power amplifier and matching network.
• Integrated PLL, regulators, and power management units.
• Supports antenna diversity.
• Wi-Fi 2.4 GHz, support WPA/WPA2(security).
• Support Smart Link Function for both Android and iOS devices.
• SDIO 2.0(secure data input output) using peripheral buses such as SPI, UART, I2C, Infrared remote control , PWM, GPIO.
• Deep sleep power ; 5uA.
• Wake up and transmit packets in ; 2ms.
• Standby power consumption of ; 1.0mW.
• +20dBm output power in 802.11b mode.

?Pin description

FIGURE 5.2 (ESP8266 PIN DIAGRAM)

No. Name Type Functions
1 VDDA Power Power Input 3.0V ~ 3.6V
12 LNA Input/Output RF Antenna, Output Impedance = 50?
3 VDD3P3 Power Amplifier Power 3.0V ~ 3.6V
4 VDD3P3 Power Amplifier Power 3.0V ~ 3.6V
5 VDD_RTC Power NC (1.1V)
6 TOUT Input An ADC Input or can be used to check voltage of VDD3P3
7 CHIP_EN Input Chip Enable (Active High)
8 XPD_DCDC Input/Output GPIO16, Deep Sleep Wakeup
9 MTMS Input/Output GPIO14, HSPI_CLK, I2C_SCL, I2SI_WS, PWM2
10 MTDI Input/Output GPIO12, HSPI_MISO, I2SI_DATA, PWM0, IR Tx, Link LED
11 VDDPST Power Digital IO Power Supply, 1.8V ~ 3.3V
12 MTCK Input/Output GPIO13, HSPI_MOSI, I2SI_BCK, UART0_CTS, Reset Button
13 MTDO Input/Output GPIO15, HSPICS, UART0_RTS, I2SO_BCK, PWM1
14 GPIO2 Input/Output GPIO2, UART1_TXD (flash programming UART Tx), I2C_SDA, I2SO_WS
15 GPIO0 Input/Output GPIO0, SPI_CS2, WiFi LED
16 GPIO4 Input/Output GPIO4, PWM3
17 VDDPST Power Digital IO Power Supply, 1.8V ~ 3.3V
18 SDIO_DATA_2 Input/Output GPIO9, Connect to SD_D2 (Series R: 200?), SPIHD, HSPIHD
19 SDIO_DATA_3 Input/Output GPIO10, Connect to SD_D3 (Series R: 200?), SPIWP, HSPIWP
20 SDIO_CMD Input/Output GPIO11, Connect to SD_CMD (Series R: 200?), SPI_CS0
21 SDIO_CLK Input/Output GPIO6, Connect to SD_CLK (Series R: 200?), SPI_CLK
22 SDIO_DATA_0 Input/Output GPIO7, Connect to SD_D0 (Series R: 200?), SPI_MSIO
23 SDIO_DATA_1 Input/Output GPIO8, Connect to SD_D1 (Series R: 200?), SPI_MOSI
24 GPIO5 Input/Output GPIO5, IR Rx
25 U0RXD Input/Output GPIO3, UART Rx during flash programming, I2SO_DATA
26 U0TXD Input/Output GPIO1, SPI_CS1, UART Tx during flash programming
27 XTAL_OUT Input/Output Used to provide BT clock input, Connect to crystal oscillator output
28 XTAL_IN Input/Output Connect to crystal oscillator input
29 VDDD Power Power Input 3.0V ~ 3.6V
30 VDDA Power Power Input 3.0V ~ 3.6V
31 RES12K Input 12K? resistor is connected to this pin and ground
32 EXT_RSTB Input Active Low External Reset Signal

TABLE 5.1(ESP8266 PINS DESCRIPTION)

5.2NODEMCU Development Board (IOT Development Board)
The Nodemcu development board consist of two units attach on it ,one is the nodemcu firmware for esp8266 wifi soc and the other one is developmet board on which the esp8266 wifi soc and its firmware is placed. Both the things put together forms Nodemcu development board.
Nodemcu development board is also known as IOT developmet board used in different place where there is application of iot. Iot development board can be used in different iot projects.
Some features of this board is GPIO pins and Serial communication protocol.

FIGURE 5.3 (NODEMCU DEV KIT V1.0)

5.2.1 Arduino With IOT
The programmed Arduino board connected with or controlling sensors in the field are collecting data from the sensors which can be saved and processed later by using iot
development board with Arduino as arduino alone will not able to setup a wifi connection
because there is no built-in support for wireless network unlike esp8266 wifi module has in IOT development board.
5.2.2 Versions of Nodemcu Development board
There are two versions of Nodemcu Development kit board:
1) NODEMCU DEV KIT V0.1(VERSION1)

2) NODEMCU DEV KIT V1.0(VERSION2)

5.2.3 Difference in between 1st and 2nd version NodeMCU Board

We can make difference in 1st and 2nd version of NodeMCU Development board by their
boards design and ESP modules on it.
*In 1st version of NodeMCU Dev Kit v0.9, CH341SER USB to Serial converter is
used whereas in 2nd version of NodeMCU Dev Kit v1.0, CP2102 USB to Serial
converter is used.
*1st version uses ESP-12 and 2nd version uses ESP-12E (Enhanced version).
*Extra 6 pins (MTDO, MTDI, SD_3, MTMS, MTCK, SD_2) brought out on ESP-
12E version of ESP-12 modules as shown in below figure. Though Quad SPI pins
are brought out, they are internally used for flash memory access.
* Also, there is slight antenna design difference in ESP-12 versions like ESP12-E ;
ESP-12F as shown in below figure.

FIGURE 5.4 (ESP8266 TYPES)

5.2.3 Nodemcu development kit used in our Iot Project

We have used the Nodemcu development kit v1.0(version2) because it uses
ESP8266 12-E which is the enchanced version of ESP12 consist in version1, board also
has more no of general purpose input and output pin(GPIO) therefore we use the
version 1 Nodemcu board with our Iot application Project.

5.3 Nodemcu Development kit v1.0(version1) Pin layout

FIGURE 5.5 (NODEMCU DEVELOPMENT BOARD PIN LAYOUT)

5.4 NodeMCU Dev Kit v1.0 pin descriptions

GPIO (General Purpose Input Output) Pins:

NodeMCU has general purpose input output pins on its board as shown in above
pinout diagram. We can make it digital high/low and control things like LED or
switch on it.
Also, we can generate PWM signal on these GPIO pins.

ADC (Analog to Digital Converter) channel (A0):
NodeMCU has one ADC channel/pin on its board.

SPI (Serial Peripheral Interface) Pins:
NodeMCU based ESP8266 has Hardware SPI (HSPI) with four pins available for
SPI communication. It also has SPI pins for Quad-SPI communication. With this
SPI interface, we can connect any SPI enabled device with NodeMCU and make
communication possible with it.

I2C (Inter-Integrated Circuit) Pins:
NodeMCU has I2C functionality support on ESP8266 GPIO pins. Due to internal
functionality on ESP-12E we cannot use all its GPIOs for I2C functionality. So, do
tests before using any GPIO for I2C applications.

UART (Universal Asynchronous Receiver Transmitter) Pins:
NodeMCU based ESP8266 has two UART interfaces, UART0 and UART1. Since
UART0 (RXD0 ; TXD0) is used to upload firmware/codes to board, we can’t use
them in applications while uploading firmware/codes.

5.4 Programming of NODEMCU development board

There are two ways to program NODEMCU:

1) BY USING LUA FIRMWARE SOFTWARE

2) BY USING ARDUINO IDE SOFTWARE

Since we have program our nodemcu development board using arduino ide software we are going to discuss only that here.

?USING ARDUINO IDE SOFTWARE
To program NodeMCU in Arduino IDE, install esp8266 board by using these
steps:
1. Open Arduino IDE and select ‘Preferences’ via ‘File’ menu.
2. Type http://arduino.esp8266.com/stable/package_esp8266com_index.json in the field for ‘Additional Boards Manager URL’.
3. Select ‘Boards Manager’ from ‘Tools’ menu.
4. Under ‘Boards Manager,’ scroll until you find ‘esp8266’ board.
5. Select the latest version and install.
6. Select the board via ‘Tools’ menu (see Fig. 5).
7. Finally, copy, paste and then upload ‘xyz.ino’ sketch into your nodemcu board.

CONCLUSION :

The project “AUTOMATION OF IRRIGATON SYSTEM with monitoring using IOT” has
mainly three aspects of measurement and transmission of data that are SOIL MOISTURE
MEASUREMENT, LIQUID MEASUREMENT and transmission of these two data to the internet
Network by using ESP8266 module.
As the main motive of our project was to reduce the cost of automation in irrigation system as well
as make it suitable for almost all types of crops and gardening system .
Along with that the project shows the one of best result in reducing the usage of water in irrigation process.

Observations made in water level measurement : Instead of using already designed water level
sensor ,it is more preferred to design ultrasonic level sensor by using HC-SR04 (Ping Sensor) as
it reduces the cost and also its accuracy is very much relevant for irrigation field plants .

Observations made in transmission of data using IOT: The sensor output can be easily send in digital
l form by using ESP8266 but the only limitation of this method is it needs good internet connectivity
that may not be present in some of the very rural areas hence for that we have tried our best
to establish a communication link between the user and field by using an buzzer and led .This is
the only field in which further improvement is possible .

RESULTS :
The output of both sensor according to variations in field is shown in figure below :

Humidity sensor output plot from IOT Module

Level sensor output plot from IOT Module

Final Representation of the process is depicted here :
Designing of Electronic circuit

SCOPE OF FUTURE DEVELOPMENT :
This project can be further developed with the involvement of Robotics and satellite communication.
With the involvement of Robotics and microelectronics not only the irrigation but whole of the farming
Can be made Automatic that is seeding, ploughing and all other processes can be made Automatic. As well
With the involvement of satellite communication and telemetry systems water level in ground can be measured.
and then accordingly the irrigation will be provided. Along with that Further modifications can be made by
making it suitable for rural areas where there is an less availability of Internet Network which leads to problem
in monitoring process.

APPENDIX:
# SOURCE CODE FOR MOISTURE AND LEVEL MEASUREMENT

ARDUINO CODE FOR LEVEL

# CODE FOR OPERATING ESP8266 IOT MODULE
String apiKey = "URT4NEWB46SBHAZ3";
const char* ssid = "gaurav"; //fill in your wifi name
const char* password = "gaurav12"; //fill in your wifi password
const char* server = "api.thingspeak.com";
//#define DHTPIN 2 // what pin we’re connected to
//DHT dht(DHTPIN, DHT22,15);
WiFiClient client;

int sensorPin = A0; // input for LDR and rain sensor
//int sel2 = 15; // SL
//int sel1 = 13; // select lines
int level;
int sensorValue1 = 0; // variable to store the value coming from sensor soil moisture
int sensorValue2 = 0; // variable to store the value coming from sensor level sensor
//int sel0 = 12;
const int trigPin = 2; //D4
const int echoPin = 0; //long duration;

REFERENCES :

1 Automated Irrigation System Using a Wireless Sensor Network and GPRS Module Joaquín Gutiérrez, Juan Francisco Villa-Medina, Alejandra Nieto-Garibay, and Miguel Ángel Porta-Gándara IEEE transactions on instrumentation and measurement
2 Energy Efficient Wireless Monitoring System for Agarian Areas in Indian Agricultural System using GPRS
module P.Revathi, Member IEEE, C.Rajasekaran, Member IEEE
3 S.V. Devika, Sk. Khamuruddeen, Sk. Khamurunnisa, JayanthThota, KhaleshaShaik “Arduino Based Automatic Plant Watering System
4 S. Harishankar, R. Sathish Kumar, Sudharsan K.P, U. Vignesh and T.Viveknath “Solar Powered Smart Irrigation System

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