Article

Article: Moser, Christoph, and Andrew K. Rose. “Why do Trade Negotiations Take So Long?” Journal of Economic Integration, vol. 27, no. 2, 2012, pp. 280-290. ProQuest Central,
proquest.com/docview/1038209885?accountid=15152.
This article emphasizes the multilateral round of trade negotiations. It focuses in the span between the beginning of trade talks and the conclusions. This article uses data from 88 regional trade agreements, from the years 1988 and 2009. Negotiations are said to be much more protracted when there are more countries involved. In addition, negotiations are protracted when the countries are not from the same region. World Trade Organization is one of the primary objectives of negotiation. It is followed by the WTO, it is also cased with the General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade (GATT) and the Regional Trade Agreements (RTAs). Negotiations are very likely to be more complicated when the number and regional diversity of its member rise. When negotiations are more than protracted, it is when there are more RTA members in the negotiation table. The way they calculate their results are as coefficients, the negative sign always indicates the length of the negotiation. It also involves the rise with numbers of countries with RTA negotiations. Trade negotiations are a bit more difficult when there are many countries in the table. Regional diversity is also a very slow process. Since members of WTO continue to expand, the remaining few outsider countries join as well. The diversity of preferences grows. It becomes to be difficult to a successful round. In this case, multilateral liberalization has more advantages in regional trade liberalization.
Article: Rahman, Mahfuzur, Moshfique Uddin, and George Lodorfos. “Barriers to Enter in Foreign Markets: Evidence from SMEs in Emerging Market.” International Marketing
Review, vol. 34, no. 1, 2017, pp. 68-86. ProQuest Central,
proquest.com/docview/1865221638?accountid=15152, doi: 10-2014-0322.
This article has a purpose on foreign market and its key strategy to survive and expand over a long period of time for both medium and small enterprises or businesses. An economic development for the growth of both the developed and developing countries that are either small or medium enterprises all play a role on generating an income, creating more employment opportunities and trying to reduce poverty. This article explains how common barriers grow with SME and all its access to finance. The lack of shortage of skill or experience, and the inability to use all the advanced technology. The fact that SME has a high rate of failure in several foreign countries. SME is a small to medium enterprise or business that usually does not hold more than 500 employees. Usually when having a standard SME, gathering and analyzing information is so much easier for a business. The foreign market needs better strategies to keep growing and to survive for long time. Small or medium enterprises or businesses that do not keep good strategies tend to loss on the market because they do not have the correct resources to keep a business going. Now, economic barriers are institutional in political, general, and legal constraints. The government combines the effort of other institutions, fields, and special interest groups. Usually the government helps develop rules and procedures for a day to day life. The political and legal systems are influenced by business environments. SME has faced barriers in developing countries to entering the foreign markets. For SME to actually enter the foreign market, they need the correct barriers, socio-economic, and measurements to actually be able to obtain the enterprise from not failing. Each SME has its own limitations and its own future on researching for their business’s future directions. For all recent small business entrepreneurs who are trying to expand their business to foreign countries should really have a good mission statement for their business before their business shuts down or goes into bankruptcy.
Article: Sanchez, Juan I., and Petra Brock. “Outcomes of Perceived Discrimination Among Hispanic Employees: Is Diversity Management a Luxury or a Necessity?” Academy of
Management Journal, vol. 39, no. 3, 1996, pp. 704-19. ProQuest Central,
proquest.com/docview/199813531?accountid=15152.
This article emphasizes how discrimination among Hispanic workers affect their commitment, and tension to the workplace area. When Hispanics do not receive the support, if the workers do not feel like their being understood, or mostly feeling accepted they tend to be slower and find the job task hard to complete. Most of the Hispanic entering the job place with no experience are most likely to get judged for not knowing how to complete the job when the proper resources were not provided to them, like training, or translation of the task. Management should be able to provide a safety environment for all of their workers equally. Also, most of the Hispanic communities first language is Spanish. It is very hard for the Hispanic community to communicate with their managers at work if they cannot understand what is being said to them. Companies should try to offer both Spanish and English language courses for better communication. Job satisfaction should be important to companies because management should always find newer ways to keep retain their current workers to create a better working environment. This is also important for management because it helps them increase their profits. Most workers tend to keep their jobs if the company offers them a higher pay salary. In most bigger companies, after the employees have been working for a period of time the company/management decided to provide their workers with benefits, like health insurance for themselves and their families, 401k, and a pay raise. Also, discrimination among Hispanics affects their health being. These reasons for being discriminated could cause stress and depression, causing them to quit their jobs. According to studies, management has been asked to come up with newer ways to support one’s ethical group so that work tension can be decreased within the Hispanic community and any other ethical subgroup. Every employer, and employee should matter. Not just the Hispanics, because they are not the only ones who are getting discriminated but along with all the other subgroups, White’s, Black’s, Indian’s, etc. Every worker should feel like they matter, and that they are actually treated as people and not just working objects. To keep workers happy, management should make an effort to have a better organizational commitment, work tension, and job satisfaction.