Meyer, E (2014, September 25). Power Distance: You can’t Lead Across Cultures Without
Understanding It. Retrieved from https://www.forbes.com/sites/forbesleadershipforum/2014/09/25/power-distance-you-cant-lead-across-cultures-without-understanding-it/#41b3e8ba459a
The Author of this article found that most of the Asian hierarchies, must not only think about lower level position, but also consider the higher position responsibility to supervise the lower position. The Author gather information through interview and research to identify the differences of work cultures in Asian countries compared to other country. One of the main reason for high-power-distance is influence of Confucius, a system that the lower position will follow the higher position and those who are higher will guide and care the lower position. An Interviewed to Australian, Steve Henning who lived in china for many years, says that “In China, “the boss is always right”, even the boss is already wrong”. This shows that in hierarchical culture country, there is an arranged order of rank, giving a direct order from top to bottom level to have a key responsibility in each employee. This study also supports the idea of Geert Hofstede, that less powerful members of organization is unequally distributed of power. However, in modern business, it is not enough to have whether it is high-power-distance or lower-power-distance you must be flexible in-order to adjust the work culture.
Coda, R., Krakauer, P. V., ; Berne, D. D. (2018). Are small business owners entrepreneurs?
Exploring small business manager behavioural profiles in the São Paulo Metropolitan region. RAUSP Management Journal, 53(2), 152-163. doi:10.1016/j.rausp.2017.05.011
This particular article is a review of how managers behave and perform in small businesses. The M.A.R.E Diagnosis (Marketing Orientation, Accumulative Orientation, Receptive Orientation, and Exploitative Orientation) is applied proclivity to try to define someone’s behaviour pattern which is known as “motivational orientation” which was adapted by the Brazilian organization. This research focuses on assessing managers behavioural style in small businesses, this is comprised of 407 managers in the western metropolitan region of Sao Paulo City in Brazil. The conducted result stated that managers in small enterprises are more on receptive orientation and analytical orientation in behaviour style This article presents the results of an exploratory study to identify behavioral styles of professionals performing managing functions in micro and small enterprises. The M.A.R.E. Diagnosis was used to analyze motivational orientation adapted to the context of Brazilian organizations. This quantitative research included 407 managers of small enterprises in the western metropolitan region of São Paulo City (SP). A comparative analysis was conducted of a sample of micro and small business owners and the results of a Brazilian sample collected in previous studies. The results showed that these managers are significantly more focused on Entrepreneurial and Analytical orientations. They are predominantly Producers, Competitors, Achievers, Facilitators, Monitors and Regulators, indicating that the behavioral development of small enterprise managers is associated with their efforts to focus on resources, concerns over improving planning and organization standards in their organizations, and on becoming aware of and implementing much needed innovation.
It is understood that knowledge regarding the possible behavioral profiles of small business executives, both dominant and absent, might shed some light on why the companies they run struggle to survive in the market. This knowledge may also help to guide their development as managers, especially regarding the behavior that they need to put into practice to ensure a more integrated management of their businesses.
Another basic characteristic of entrepreneurs is their creative spirit and that of a researcher ( HYPERLINK “https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0080210716307191” l “bib0110” Hisrich et al., 2014). They are constantly seeking new solutions, always thinking of people’s needs. The essence of a successful entrepreneur lies in seeking new businesses and concern over improving a product ( HYPERLINK “https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0080210716307191” l “bib0170” Shane ; Venkataraman, 2000). Studies in the field of entrepreneurship ( HYPERLINK “https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0080210716307191” l “bib0080” Filion, 1999, HYPERLINK “https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0080210716307191” l “bib0140” McClelland, 1965, HYPERLINK “https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0080210716307191” l “bib0150” Pino, 1995) have shown that the characteristics of an entrepreneur or the entrepreneurial spirit, of the industry or institution, are more than merely personality traits. Entrepreneurs are also people with certain types of preferential behavior. They have the skill to glimpse and evaluate business opportunities, guaranteeing the resources necessary to put everything into practice. They are individuals motivated to action and concerned with achieving goals.
The assumptions of self-determination theory also consider the way in which cultural and social factors facilitate or compromise the will and initiative of people, complementing the feelings that they have in terms of well-being and the quality of their performances. To HYPERLINK “https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0080210716307191” l “bib0075” Deci and Ryan (2000), whenever individuals have opportunities for autonomy, application of their competences and association, this leads to higher levels of motivation and commitment, including improvements in performance, persistence and creativity.
Motivational orientation and the motivational orientations of the M.A.R.E. Diagnosis
Relatively stable preferences or tendencies in someone’s behavior characterize what is known as “motivational orientation”. This is defined as a behavior pattern that emerges frequently in the attitudes of an individual ( HYPERLINK “https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0080210716307191” l “bib0055” Coda, 2016). The M.A.R.E. Diagnosis identifies a cast of 4 (four) motivational orientations in work from a questionnaire created and validated in the context of Brazilian organizations, based on self-perceptions regarding behaviors and favored actions in work, considering the innate personality traits underlying the entire motivational process as a secondary theme. It is based on the four orientations proposed by HYPERLINK “https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0080210716307191” l “bib0090” Fromm (1986), adapted by HYPERLINK “https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0080210716307191” l “bib0060” Coda (2000) for situations and behaviors in the context of working organizations. The motivational orientations are renamed as Mediating, Analytical, Receptive and Entrepreneuring. HYPERLINK “https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0080210716307191” l “tbl0005” Table 1 presents a summary of the main characteristics of each of these motivational orientations and a visualization of the parallel established between the classification proposed by Coda (2000) and the one originally developed by Fromm (1986).