Anais Guevara Professor Biology 2020-01 5/11/18 Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus Type II diabetes mellitus is the most common chronic diseases that affects the pancreas

Anais Guevara
Professor
Biology 2020-01
5/11/18
Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus

Type II diabetes mellitus is the most common chronic diseases that affects the pancreas. There is an estimate of 24 million people that have diabetes in the U.S(Vijan S. 2010). Type II diabetes is continuing to increase throughout the years and not only in elderly people but also children. Every year there is 1.6 million new cases of people with type II diabetes, between the ages twenty years and older. The pancreas is what is the main problem when it comes to diabetes. I will be discussing how the pancreas works and how diabetes affects the pancreas. The number of people that have type II diabetes keeps increasing and will not stop if people don’t take care of themselves.

Type II diabetes mellitus affects the endocrine system by not producing enough insulin for the body. A normal pancreas that has no affect to it creates insulin to lower the level of glucose in the blood. The pancreas is part of the endocrine system which Is the second major control system of the body (Marieb.E,2016).The endocrine system goes hand in hand with the nervous system to keep the cells active in the body. The nervous system is more fast acting than the endocrine system. The endocrine system acts upon chemical messengers which are hormones that are released into the blood to travel throughout the body. The endocrine system releases many types of hormones. The hormones are steroids or amino acids that help stimulate the body. Hormones help keep a balance in the body and to do so it releases hormones. Even though the hormones travel though blood there is a specific hormone for a specific organ in the body. The pancreas is known for releasing insulin, which is what I will mainly focus, since type II diabetes affects the way the pancreas works. The pancreas is a long slim, organ that is located behind and towards the bottom of the stomach. It is not only considered an endocrine system, but also it is part of the exocrine system. The reason to why the pancreas is considered to be part of the exocrine system is because the pancreas produces digestive enzymes for the stomach. The pancreas not only produces digestive enzymes but has pancreatic islets Langerhans that secrete hormones such as glucagon, insulin, somatostatin and pancreatic polypeptide (Carpe N, 2010). The beta cells of the pancreas produce the insulin for the pancreas. The high concentration of glucose in your body stimulates the release of insulin which then helps lower the level of glucose in your body. Glucose is necessary for the body it serves as a fuel for the body cells to keep active. We need sugar to give us energy throughout the day without glucose we would feel tired. The body receives sugar from the breakdown of carbohydrate within food and drinks that we consume. The pancreas has receptors that can tell when there is a sudden decrease of glucose in the body. The body reacts by having alpha cells secrete glucagon to increase the glucose level. The pancreas can secrete insulin or glucagon to increase the levels of sugar in the body. It is said to be a negative feedback mechanism, having glucagon secrete and regulate the levels of sugars when they are low (Carpe N, 2010).
The pancreas works like this the levels of glucose in the body are low, the body then the pancreas releases insulin. It then travels through the splenic artery which then triggers body cells, that then take glucose from the blood to use for cellular respiration. Then it inhibits glycogen lysis, which remove glucose from the blood to store as glycogen in the liver. After that it inhibits glycogenesis, which helps with decreasing the glucose level to 70 – 110 mg/dl. This all occurs when a person suffers from hyperglycemia meaning high levels of sugar. For people who suffer from hypoglycemia meaning low sugar level to rise the sugar level it first starts with alpha cells secreting glucagon, that helps with not letting the body use4 the glucose from the blood. It then stimulates glycogen lysis and leads to glucagen in the liver breaking down into glucose and releasing to the blood. Then it stimulates glycogenosis, that has amino acids and glycerol turn into glucose in the endoplasmic reticulum.
The dysfunction of insulin production and secretion is what leads to having diabetes mellitus. There are two forms of diabetes mellitus, one being type 1 diabetes which is an autoimmune disease that affect the beta cells of the pancreas.(ADA,2014) As I explained early the pancreas affected by diabetes mellitus. So, the body does not produce insulin to lower the glucose level, in which people that have the condition have to inject themselves with synthetic insulin(ADA,2014). Then there is type 2 diabetes which is in 95% of the cases received related to diabetes(UCSF,2011). Type 2 diabetes is most common in people who are overweight or obese and have poor diet. With type 2 diabetes the cells in the pancreas become resistant to insulin and this causes the pancreas so to secret more insulin. This can be reversed by having a healthy diet and getting exercises and losing weight.
The symptoms for diabetes mellitus are increased thirst, frequent urination, extreme hunger and unexplained weight loss. Also blurry vison and fatigue any signs of these symptoms you should seek medical advisement. These are some of the symptoms you may feel when you have diabetes but not necessarily all the symptoms will show. Always go to a doctor to ask for test to be ran to check your glucose levels. Many people in the U.S. do not even know that they have diabetes. There is about 7 million or more adults that have diabetes mellitus but have not been diagnosed(UCSF,2011). People with diabetes are more prone to other diseases such as atherosclerotic cardiovascular, and peripheral arterial. Having chronic diabetes can also have long term affects such as organ failure. The organs that are affected because of the lack or too much insulin are kidneys, nerve and heart. Sometimes young children develop diabetes not because they are overweight but because it comes from genetics. Having a parent that had diabetes previously can increase the chances of their children developing diabetes in the future. In this case you would have to get checked for diabetes at an early age that is why it always important to tell doctors about any family diseases that exists.
The treatments for diabetes mellitus are eating healthy and exercising. These two things will help reduce the chances of developing diabetes. If already you have diabetes it would be to monitor your glucose levels and maintain a normal weight. Also one of the main treatments patients receive are insulin injections. The insulin injections help with normally the levels of insulin in the pancreas, since the pancreas is no longer making enough. Insulin is not required for people with type 2 diabetes. There are also oral medication that can be taken to control the blood sugar and having a healthier lifestyle will reduce the chances of the diabetes getting worse.

References
American Diabetes Association Diabetes Care 2004 Jan; 27(suppl 1): s5 s10. https://doi.org/10.2337/diacare.27.2007.S5Carpe Noctum. Endocrine System. Anatomy and Physiology. Retrieved from: https://courses.lumenlearning.com/suny-ap2/chapter/the-endocrine-pancreas/
“Diabetes Mellitus | Conditions & Treatments.” UCSF Medical Center, 6 Jan. 2011, www.ucsfhealth.org/conditions/diabetes_mellitus/.

Marieb Elaine N. and Katja Hoehn. Human Anatomy ; Physiology 10th edition. NP: Pearson Education, 2016.print
Vijan S. Type 2 Diabetes. Ann Intern Med. 2010;152:ITC3–1. doi: 10.7326/0003-4819-152-5-201003020-01003