All life on earth depends inevitably on the Water which exists in nature in various forms such as Ocean, river, lakes, clouds, rain and snow. The growing populations, progressive industrialization and intensification of agriculture have led to increased pollution of surface waters which induces ecological imbalance, deleterious for sustained development of fisheries resources. Water quality monitoring is of immense importance in the conservation of water resources for drinking water supply, irrigation and fish farming and other activities .It involves generally the analysis of physico-chemical, biological and microbiological parameters which reflects the abiotic and biotic status of the ecosystem. The Optimum fish production is totally depending on the physical, chemical and biological qualities of water, any change in the water quality has direct influence on biotic communities where different species of flora and fauna exhibit great variations in their responses to the alter environment (Watson and John, 2003). Impacted changes in the quality of water are reflected in the biotic community structure, with the vulnerable dying, while the most sensitive species act as indicators of water quality. The current limnological study is carried out on Lake Tanganyika which is one of the largest lakes of Africa and second biggest lake considering the area after Lake Victoria .At the world level, Lake Tanganyika is the longest freshwater lake and holds second position in terms of volume and depth after Lake Baïkal (Wetzel, 1983). It is surrounded by four countries (Burundi, Democratic Republic of Congo,Tanzania and Zambia) which share its entire perimeter unequally. The surface waters of Lake Tanganyika are highly polluted by different harmful contaminants from human activities in large cities and are subject to frequent fluctuations in their Physicochemical characteristics and to desiccation (Wetzel, 2001) due to sudden changes in weather Conditions.That is why the study entitled “Limnological (Physical and chemical characteristics) study of Lake Tanganyika with special emphasis on Piscicultural Potentiality” is necessary for assessing the water quality of Lake Tanganyika in order to formulate some recommendations that will help the government to take the measures for protecting the Lake against the conditions that can adversely affect the life in the Lake.