Abstract To govern a country systematically well and correct

Abstract
To govern a country systematically well and correct, the importance of public administration is inevitable and obligatory. Civil service system is a significant part on public administration. Recruitment policy in is one of the main pillars of civil service system. In this article, it has been tried to explore the methods and policies taken by Bangladesh in its recruitment policies in civil service system and its problems and loopholes. It has been discussed about the policies which should be taken by Bangladesh in long ran to provide an unquestionable civil service system in recruitment sector. On the other hand, Japan has proved itself the best among Asians countries. Observing there recruitment policy we could learn something from Japan and imply in our country for betterment of the nation. Japan after seclusion, had restarted their recruitment policy on firmly merit basis and there is no pre dominance of quota system and they refrain themselves and tries to avoid nepotism culture in their recruitment policies for the betterment of their country. This article is all about learning lessons from Japan how they strictly stick to the merit system avoiding quota and how they have promoted their education sector to have a sophisticated bureaucrat in contrary. Japan has a long history of good governance and we can hopefully follow the Japanese model and be able to establish some sort of dynamics with some limitations.

Introduction

We Will Write a Custom Essay Specifically
For You For Only $13.90/page!


order now

The Civil Service System of Japan has had a chequered history, since it was initially established in the early seventh century (Nara period) . Following the Chinese system, the Japanese regal court adopted their (Chinese) laws and paraphernalia originated from the Confucian philosophy . As this imported system was never imposed successfully in Japan at large, so a new system had developed by the middle of Tokugawa period under the leadership of the Samurai class. Following the Meiji Restoration in 1868, the leading class, emerged from the administration of the lower ranks of the Samurai , and established a Western-style civil service system. This new policy had received further changes by the American during the occupation period after the Second World War. Generally, many factors contributed with a view to launching a social welfare system and this system had changed further coping with the time and necessity. However, in this short resume we have tried to highlight several aspects of the modern recruitment system now in practice in Japan allowing the time constraints. From the context of our country, Bangladesh, it could be said that after the independence of Bangladesh in 1971, the Bangladesh Civil Service has formed to create good governance by an act. Currently Bangladesh Civil Service system seems like a hoax to a common man. Countless controversy is now annoying people and frustration is taking its position accordingly. Quota system, nepotism, taking bribes from the candidates- so many issues are there which are unresolved and untouched.

Through this research, there are plenty of things we should learn from and about Japan as it is a highly developed country within Asia. We share cultural, sociological and linguistic similarity with Japan. Being a poor resourceful country, it has proved itself the best among Asians countries. Observing there recruitment policy we could learn something from it and imply in our country for betterment of the nation. In the first place, we shall try to understand the nature of recruitment policy now in practice in Japan along with its problem. Next we shall try to draw some inferences from the Japanese system that may help Bangladesh so far as its recruitment system is concerned. The significance of the study is to know and learn from Japan’s civil service Recruitment policy. Through these we can take Japan as a role model or as a case study and try to imply as far as possible. Going through the existing literature a way out could be found for Bangladesh’s recruitment policy. The specific objectives of the study are to identify the existing recruitment policy use pattern of the selected countries; to explore the prime features of changes in the public service policy level and its effects on the society of these countries, and to give some suggestions based on the study findings.

Literature Review

In Japan subject is hardly found for writing afresh. Both professional researchers and scholar-administrators are often engaged in writing on different subjects. There are considerable numbers of writings on present recruitment system in Japan in various sectors. For example, Peter Firkola of Hokkaido University has written an article on “Changing Recruitment Practices in Japanese Companies”, which was published in the Journal of Management (2(8): 121-124, 2014). Dev Raj Adhikari of Central Department of Management, Tribhuvan University wrote on “National Factors and Employment Relatons in Japan”, which was submitted to Japan Institute of Labor Policy and Training, Tokyo in 2005, where he had picked up several aspects pertinent to national recruitment in Japan. Similarly, GendaY?ji of Akebono Brake Industry Co., Ltd has prepared report on Japan’s Employment System in Transition. A book namely The Government and Politics of Japan written by Hitoshi Abe, Muneyuki Shindo and Sadafumi Kawato and translated by James.W. White may be analyzed and discussed for this research work as a secondary recourse. The book Public Administration in South Asia: India, Bangladesh, and Pakistan public administration and public policy edited by Meghna Sabbharwal and Evan M. Berman should be mentioned while talking about public administration and recruitment. Public Administration: Balancing Power and Accountability written by Jerome B. McKinney and Lawrance Cabot Howard is also a must read. From the book Public Administration In Bangladesh written by Nagendra Kr. Singh have enough imformation on Bagladesh civil service system. Rumki Basu and M. Shamsur Rahman have edited a book namely “Governance in South Asia” and in their work they have mentioned the recruitment policy in Civil Service in Bangladesh and tried to illustrate the flaws of Bangladesh Civil Service system. There is another book referring same name “Governance in South Asia: State of the civil Service”. Ali Riaz , Sajjadur Rahman in their book ” Rutledge Handbook of Contemporary Bangladesh” has discussed the contemporary situation and Bangladesh Civil Service system has been referred as a part of the book. On Japan’s civil service system, Robert M. Spaulding Jr. has written a book on “Imperial Japan’s Higher Civil Service Examinations” and he has delivered Japan’s views on Government jobs and how to acclaim that thoroughly. A. Messey’s “International handbook civil service” has to be mentioned while discussing about recruitment. In these books there are lots of literatures on recruitment in Civil Service in Japan, but it is impossible to mention them all. However, there are some other writings which could not be mentioned for time constraint. It appears from the above writings that recruitments in various sectors are based on several criterions as the nature of job is not same everywhere.

Methodology

In order to understand the form and nature of recruitments in the public sector qualitative and methods will be applied. Secondary data will be used for doing this research. Books and articles hitherto published will be consulted for this article. Data were collected from various publishes documents, journals, government circulars, reports, research reports, newspaper and internet browsing. Through the study it has been tried to find out the loopholes of our Civil Service Recruitment Policy and comparing with Japan’s policy create a fair and practicable understanding of it. For time constrain, it was not possible for the writers to prepare questionnaire and interview some Japanese Public servants available in Bangladesh. The study was based on primary data and secondary sources. These have helped us by supplying a parameter of recruitment in Japan and Bangladesh. Through this qualitative and comparative study, the condition of both the countries recruitment policies in civil service is in one paper and with the help of these, Bangladesh could be able to learn lessons from Japan and apply that lessons accordingly if wishes so. The measurement of the result of this study will include nature of job, policy of public sector recruitment and percentage of appointment in different cadres from Japan and Bangladesh. These methodologies may help us to understand the way to progress next. With the help of this research the author could come to a conclusion that what lessons Bangladesh could learn from Japan .The recent civil service system of Japan could be a significant lesson from the perspective of our country.
Conceptual Framework
Recruitment system of Bangladesh:
Government employees of Bangladesh are categorized in two ways. In fact Civil Service in Bangladesh is organized vertically in four classes. One is on the basis of class namely class 1 officer, class 2 officers, class 3 employees, and class 4 employees and the other one is gazette and non gazette officers. The officers, whose appointment, posting, and promotion are notified to the government, are gazette officers. Class 1 officers are all treated as gazette officers. Some class 2 officers are also treated as gazette officers. Some belong to the cadre services among these class 1 officers. Regarding iii class employee iv class employee merit is not the basis of recruitment at all. Moreover there is a criterion namely ad hoc in which recruitment could be done and undoubtedly these ad hoc recruitments are not on merit basis for sure (Ferdous, 2015).
Eligibility of Recruitment: Three methods are there in the existing recruitment policy of recruitment of the cadre service. First one is direct appointment which means recruitment through open competitive examination, second one is categorized through promotion and third one is appointment by transfer or deputation. (Ali, 2017). This research is specifically on the first one: through open competitive examination. The age limit for general section is 21 to 30 and the restrictions are they are supposed to be the citizens of Bangladesh and not married to a foreigner.
Recruitment Agencies: The Ministry of Public Administration (MOPA) is playing the vital role while recruiting civil servants. It is the central personnel authority which regulates the civil service of this nation. But the burden of recruitment is entrusted to the Bangladesh Public Service Commission (BPSC) which has another name and that is PSC. In Bangladesh, PSC is a constitutional body with distinct and definite power and functions. While recruiting directly, the relevant divisions and ministries inform PSC about the quantity of vacant posts through the Ministry of Public Administration (MOPA).
BCS Recruitment Policy: The Bangladesh civil service recruitment policy is a lengthy process consisting of two to three consecutive years. There are seven different and time consuming steps and procedure which could be divided in two groups. In the first group the first step or procedure is the following:
1. Preliminary Examination
2. Written Examination
3. Viva
The second group consists of
1. Medical test
2. Police Verification
3. Appointment
On the basis of written and viva marks, the merit list is assembled. After compiling the merit list, the candidates are opted for diverse types of quotas. The role of PSC is indispensable to trigger a quota scheme that gives slot to class 1 posts as required (Jahan, 2012).
Table 1
Recruitment Policy for BCS including other Class 1 & 11 Services
(Figures in percentages)

Recruitment Policy 1972 1976 1985 (till date)
Merit (outside district quota) 20 40 45
Freedom fighters 30 30
War affected women 10 10
District quota 40 20
Wards of Freedom fighters 30
a. Women 10
b. Tribal 05
c. District Merit 10
Total 100 100 100
Source: Wahab, 2009: 5

Figure- 1: Recruitment Policy for BCS including other Class 1 & 11 Services

Rules of Recruitment Examinations:
Initially candidates fill up their application form and submit it online to the PSC website within the scheduled date given by the authority. After submitting their filled up forms, worthy candidates obtain admit card for sitting in the examination. First they have to face the preliminary MCQ test consisting 200 marks. Qualifying marks in preliminary examination is decided by the Commission prior to publishing the result. After passing preliminary they are considered qualified for the next step -written test. Both the general and technical cadres have to go through the specific examination on 900 marks and 200 marks for viva voce.
Table 2
Allocation of quota for Civil Service Recruitment Policy
Merit (outside district quota) 45%
Freedom fighters 30%
Women 10%
District quota 10%
Tribal community 5%

(Source: Ministry of Public Administration, GOB, 2011)

Figure – 2: Allocation of quota for Civil Service Recruitment Policy

Civil Service in Bangladesh Comparing with Japanese recruitment policy in civil service system, Bangladesh since after independence in 1971, the recruitment policy is civil service is dominated by different level of quota system. Though the quota has been distributed among the candidates on the basis of merit in their respective groups but this upholds so may hazards along with political nepotism. From the table no. 1, the change in recruitment policy could be observed from 1972 to 1985. It could also be seen from the table that since after independence till 1976, only 20 percent of the civil servants were recruited on merit basis which increased 20 to 40% and there is no major chance in merit based recruitment from then. Merit has not bestowed with appropriate prestige and proper prominence in our recruitment plans. From the table 2, merit has acquired 45% of the total, freedom fighters and their off spring have obtained 30%, district people get 10%, and women get hold on of 10% and remaining 5% is for tribal community.
Historical Background of Civil Service in Japan
Japan has borrowed the perception of civil service from T’ang China in 7th century but the idea was never completely implemented and thrived for various political grounds at that era. In the Edo period, recruitment in the civil service were concentrated and specified in feudal family rank. But Meiji restoration has drastically changed the whole system. After Meiji restoration western officials were invited and came to Japan as Japan was open to the world after 1868. Japan planned of a government which will be well equipped to handle all the past hurdles. Rather than inviting officials from other countries, Japan has dispatched delegates to abroad to learn from the rest of the world. Japan was preparing itself to create a modern system in Japan. Among them, Ito Hirobumi went to Berlin and Vienna and learnt about the civil service system and recruitment based on educational achievement (Koh, 1991:10-13). The civil service system which was formularized in the Meiji era has come to an ending with the conclusion of Second World War. After the Second World War, the new civil service system was introduced only to democratize the systems of politics and public administration in Japan.

Subsequent to Japan’s absolute surrender in World War II, it entered a new segment, the first overseas occupation in its account. Nominally an Allied occupation, it was in reality absolutely an American show. The seven-year occupation proved to be an epochal turning point in Japanese history, for it helped to lay the groundwork for the democratization of Japanese society and polity as well. As part of the comprehensive program of political democratization, the Supreme Commander for the Allied Powers (SCAP) carried out a comprehensive reform of Japan’s civil-service system (Koh, 1991:10-13). That latest civil service act was legislated under US occupation. Through this, a modern recruitment system was introduced in Japan and it could be heard that with this process Japan has found its extremely and exceedingly talented bureaucrats who were the reasons and basic supporting elements of Japan’s economical miracle (Hideki, 2009: 3).Here, Bangladesh can learn from the historical background of Japan’s Civil Service. Bangladesh could also send intellectuals in their respective fields to certain developed countries and give them the opportunity to learn how those people had developed their own country and returning back to Bangladesh these foreign returns could teach and train our officials consequently. We could dispatch our delegates who are unconditionally devoted to Bangladesh for learning something more effective than what we already have.

The Process of Recruitment in Civil Service
Japan’s recruitment policy in civil service is fully based on educational qualifications so before discussing about this qualification and policies, a rough sketch of Japanese Educational system is needed to draw. Children start their education at the age of six and the graduate from universities at the age of 22 or 23. In between they complete their elementary schooling and junior high school at the age of 15. At the age of 18 they complete senior high school. After completion of four years graduation, students apply and sit for the competitive examination for being recruited in civil service as well as various governments and non-government organization (National Personnel Authority, 2000).It must be mentioned that every child is bound to follow this education rule approved by their government without any choices. After completion of schooling, they sit for the toughest examination known as Civil Service. Some reputed universities such as Kyoto University, Tokyo University – have the pride that their pass outs have done exceedingly good in Civil Service Examination and they continuously obtain a good and fair chance as a civil servant. The argument is, Japan tends to promote education, not nepotism. Though there is a provision of political recruitment in Japan’s civil service system but that has merely resemblance with our derailed quota culture.
The procedure of civil service recruitment is based on merit and people have to go through toughest competitive examination for being selected as a candidate. There were several types of recruitment examination carried out by the Ministry of Foreign Affairs and that is designated as an examination Authority by the NPA (National Personnel Authority). In conformity with Article 24 of the Japan’s National Public Service Act, the National Personnel Authority submits its Annual Report to the Diet and Cabinet every year. The civil servants are recruited through toughest competitive examination and after passing the examination, the successful candidates are supposed to be trained under government organs for long years to learn the system and the policies accordingly. Bangladesh could learn this procedure of long learning sessions of the public service candidates working as a government organ from Japan. Japan first trains their public servants how to work and every detail about their works and after completion of their successful training period, they are allowed to start their work as a civil servant. Mid career employment is also introduced with the lieu of it but that was unusual. In contrary, with the other western countries like United States, Japan, at the beginning, was closed to senior officials being appointed politically.Though that trend has been changed but this merit-based recruitment and political recruitment was always in controversy (Hideki, 2009: 7).

Method of Recruitment Policy
To verify and to find out candidates knowledge, capability and ability evaluation is a must. Aptitude is also needed to verify their capabilities while doing their duties as a government official. The examination is conducted in three specific ways:

1. Basic Ability Test: Basic ability test is to examine the basic intelligence and knowledge of the candidate.
2. Specialized Ability Test: To examine the candidate’s specific specialization.
3. Interview: Interview is required to examine candidate’s personality and interpersonal skill. Specifically ‘Discussion based Test on policy’ issues are also conducted for the availability of comprehensive Service for graduate students. It is decided through group based discussion on various issues.
These are preliminary initial level tests. For candidates with higher expertise, the authority takes decision, after the involvement of University professors and officers with great expertise from the cabinet office and each ministry.
Specific Recruitment Examination
In the fiscal year 2015, the NPA of Japan (National Personnel Authority) has conducted 21 types of recruitment examination and along with all these examinations, one more examination had also been taken and that was the recruitment examination for Ministry of Foreign Affairs (MOFA) and that was based on NPA’s designation. There were several provisions of appointments. For example, in case of primary level appointments, duties regarding planning the policies, research and study, two types of examinations were needed to pass out. One is for Graduate level and the other one is for university graduate level. For participation of people in routine jobs, three types of examination could be taken place. First, examination for graduate level, then examination for high school graduate level and lastly examination for mid career specifically for entry level.
There were another examination regarding specialists, who were required for doing special duties in a specific field of administration such as examination for national tax specialist and labor inspector. In addition, there is another examination for experienced personnel, who are assigned for initial appointment – has his personal experience in private sector or as government officer as unit chief or above. This is in total 21 classifications and breakdown of examinations which is required for recruitment in civil service (NPA, 2015: 90).The examinations which require elevated proficiency are deliberately organized after consideration and assessments of highly qualified university professors’ commissions who are examination experts and with the help of the employees with expertise of cabinet office and each ministry for being a part of this specific examination. Here the argument of the study is Japan arranges various types of examination and their whole team work and study for the betterment of the procedure concurrently every year. Every detail is taken care of without failure. Mean to say that they work continuously to avoid deficient. But in case of Bangladesh, knowing well that there are so many flaws in our policy we are reluctant to work on it.
Outline of Recruitment Examination
According to the record the examination accomplished by NPA and MOFA in 2014 and 2015, the candidate were 1, 32,521 in 2015 which has decreased in account of participation of candidates 4.7% than the fiscal year 2014. But in contrary, the total number of candidates passed the examination has increased 13.1% than 2014 FY. But the ratios of successful students from graduate students were 6.2% which was lower than the ratio of the candidates of FY 2014 and the successful students from senior high school were 6.3 which were also lower than the ratio of the candidates 2014 FY. These two were lower than their previous year, 2014. Source: NPA Activities in FY 2015, P. 94. Along with these, to make the examination method more expedient, in 2004 an online application service has been launched for selected sectors of recruitment examination such as for air traffic controller and Aeronautical safety collage students, etc. NPA developed and provided this service for all the examinations taken in Japan since 2012 (NPA, 2015: 96). The argument is Japan has kept its sharpest eye on each and every year details of the Public Service examination and recruitment policy and working for the betterment of their country. Therefore following the requests came from cabinet office and ministries; The NPA has published a packed plan for recruitment examination of national public employees for the fiscal year 2016 for evaluating the supplementary enhancement of employment examination (NPA, 2015: 93).
After going through Japan’s recruitment method, policy and outline, we could come to a conclusion that Japanese Civil servants come through toughest competition. As their respective position rises higher, their examination becomes tougher. It is not that simple to attend an examination once in a life time and enjoy the fruit of profit sitting idle and unoccupied. As it has been mentioned earlier, the candidates with higher expertise and potentials are judged by the ministry and profound professors on their specific fields. But from Bangladesh’s context – we arrange an examination under one big umbrella and sort out from there only. Japan has specific sections decided for each segment. The NPA annually conducts a survey which covers some particular aspects of recruitment policy of each fiscal year. Among these, incumbency, initial appointments are considered important.
Appointment
As a rule, the preliminary appointment of employees depends on an open and reasonable competitive examination wherefrom unbeaten aspirants are selected for their scheduled appointments. According to NPA structure, the aspirant candidates face interviews from the concerned cabinet office or ministry. Thus, the appointments were made on the basis of the results of the candidates. In some sectors e.g. education or medical services recruitment examinations are not essential. But for appointment, for higher and skilled fields, appointments conducted through a selection process based on demonstrative abilities other than competitive examination.
The thing is Japan do nuts and bolts research on each segment of recruitment every time and it is a continuous process which has no bar named perfection.
Incumbency
The incumbency in regular service in 2015 integrated personnel and governmental leave, personal dispatch to international organizations and personal transmit to private sectors which excluded prosecutors, temporary and full- time appointment (NPA, 2015: 97).
Initial Appointments
In fiscal year 2014, the initial appointment established an increase in both men and women if put side by side with FY 2013, where selection occupied rather higher preference than competitive examination. In these fiscal years, appointments were made in various sectors. The total number of appointments made in 2013 was 15,321 and in FY 2014, it was 23,108 inspective of men and women (NPA, 2015: 98).Prototype of recruitment examination vs. evaluation during the post war period, the principal mode of recruitment, evaluation (Senko) had played an important role. It is evident from the table No-1 where evaluation served as a principal mode of recruitment.
However, the overall picture of recruitment gives a wrong impression to a large extent because both education and health sector were then debarred from the recruitment policy. In 1957, almost 7 out of 10 of administrative service bureaucrats were recruited through competitive examination and by 1965 these proportion rose 78%.Later recruitment through assorted competitive examinations constituted 16.7% of the total. It should also be accentuated that a very small proportion of the examination qualified appointees has passed the higher civil service examinations (Koh, 1991: 83).
In order to have a comprehensive view, we can consider it through grade system. It is divided as first grade and second grade. In the first grade, higher civil service examination has emerged as a dominant mode of entry into the elite position in Japan. The grade system shows improvement in the higher civil service examination progressively from 1970 and it continued from then. Similarly one can find a steady increase in the proportion of examination-qualified incumbents in grade 2 over the span of 15 years. But in grade 3, the situation is remarkably different. Several distinct trends are there and among them access to the position of assistant bureau chief, division chief, senior-level section chief etc. could be mentioned. A small fraction of those are also there, who entered the civil service by the way of intermediate examination will be able to attain these high-level positions and see that goal is within the rich events of the lower examinations. A numerical breakdown along with the higher-examination certified by the civil servants shows noticeable mobility in recruitment in Japanese civil service system (Koh, 1991: 83-86).
A Special recruitment after working as a Civil Servant: Amakudari
There is a particular phrase referred for some higher-ranking and middle ranking bureaucrats of Japan who are permitted to take an imperative and significant position in private and semi private sectors after retirement from the civil service. Literally ama means heaven and kudari means descendents. Civil service meant here as heaven and these highly powerful but middle ranked and sometimes top ranked officials are descendents from there. They are known as “golden parachutes” either. (Rahman, 2008: 2)
The basic and fundamental of amakudari is as the Japanese bureaucrats progress upward on the basis of ranking system, the chances and opportunities to hold a top position becomes very few for them as the competition becomes severely severe. Inner conflict among the officials turns out to be additionally staid in that situation. Those who passes and win the elite ministry feels exceedingly contented with their positions but those who becomes unsuccessful, they choose to retire early and join in the private and semi private organization after completion of two years of their retirements from civil service with high lucrative jobs and huge retirement allowance. This is a pattern of civil service recruitment which is done at the end of their service in private and semi private sectors (Davies, and Ikeno, 2002: 23-33).
This type of recruitment has some resemblance with Bangladesh. But in case of Japan, these bureaucrats who join in the private sector after retirement they have a bunch of followers and subordinates along with them . These bunches is more or less bound to hear and obey the bureaucrat even after his or her retirement from the respective position because Japan is a vertical society and they are fastened with it and dare to break that hierarchy (Nakane, 1970: 24-41). In case of Bangladesh, this pattern of hierarchism is lack in Bangladesh civil service system.
Lessons to be learnt for Bangladesh:
Bangladesh being a developing country has thousand of things to learn from Japan’s various sectors, specifically regarding recruitment policies in Civil Service system. First we should find out the loopholes and considering circumstances, we can adopt whatever fits in our policies.
Lack of accurate information:
As we concentrate in the recruitment policy of Japan, it could be seen that there is no room for any kind of quota. But in case of Bangladesh, Public service Commission is assigned as the agency to conduct this competitive examination uninterruptedly but unfortunately it is not possible for them either to provide the adequate information relating quota.
Improper Documentation:
As compared to the annual report of Bangladesh civil service recruitment report with Japan’s annual report, it is far more different from Bangladesh’s one. Japan’s annual report is written in details While Bangladesh’s report is not one tenth of it .According to the NPS (National Public Service) act, Japan’s NPA(National Personnel Authority) submits it’s accurate and profound annual report to the Diet and Cabinet as well. Bangladesh’s PSC also submits a annual report but comparing with Japan’s one, it is not perfectly accurate one. Being a national of democratic Bangladesh, people has the right to information and neither man nor organization could refrain him or her from having that.
Time Consumption:
Bangladesh’s civil service recruitment is severely time-consuming and lengthy if compared to Japan. Average time spent for a general BCS Examination is 24.73 months and for special 24 months. It is very important to conduct the whole procedure within a fixed pre-decided time and all the officials will work hard to achieve their time target. If it is possible for PSC to conduct the process in a specific span of time, the complete system will come under a systematic constituent (TIB, 2007: 73).
Education System:
Japan invests a bulk amount of money in education sector and inspires students to study hard so that they will be capable of being able to obtain a chance to be a student of reputed university and passing from there achieve a prestigious position through civil service recruitment.
Institutional Discrimination:
In Bangladesh, for public services, quotas and viva voce are the two main obstacle and hurdle to fair recruitment. The quota system of Bangladesh occupies more than 50 percent of the public-sector jobs is the unending disturbance in competitive hiring under Bangladesh Public Service Commission (BPSC). It has been in practice since Liberation and has become a symbol of institutional discrimination to frustrate the general graduates who have the ability to serve Bangladesh government and unquestionably deserves more (Paul, 2017).
Conclusion
Concentrating at Japan’s history, it could be found that Japan has gone through a constant military system for a long span of time which was loaded with nepotism and resignation and continuing that for so long, they concluded to discontinue corrupted system and learnt from the other developed civilization how to conclude and restart. Japan has sent their delicates to aboard and learnt a proper system on civil service recruitment policy which matches their stipulation. The recruitment in the Civil Service in Japan is based on firm basis and the main statement of the research is they are constantly working on it every year to avoid any sort questionable remark regarding their recruitment policy. It is known to all that Japan’s government, politics and economy is more or less stable; while the case of Bangladesh is experimental and yet formulating; because it has taken long time to establish a stable government In contrary to that, Bangladesh’s BCS and PSC is in practice since liberation of institutional discrimination which frustrates the general candidates who has a good ability to serve Bangladesh as a government official. Bangladesh is a democratic country and being a citizen of this country people of Bangladesh has the right to information act but unfortunately, even after 46th anniversary of our independence, the quota system is rigorously in vague and people do not get the accurate information on which basis a commoner is being privileged. It is preferable and suggested to abolish the whole quota system and rearrange it on firmly merit basis. Those who are marginalized and in need of governmental promotion, government can support them in their education sector. Though Bangladesh government is supporting women tremendously in education sector but the point is, government can promote women’s education through stipends and providing stipends to the tribal community as well but in case of choosing and filtering bureaucrats, it should be particularly on and only merit basis. The district quota system is also nothing but a political promotion. The quotas allotted for freedom fighters’ wards has been converted into a successful and full prove nasty business in Bangladesh and could be seen regularly in daily news papers. The government should definitely and sincerely work on the whole system every year.
Examinations which PSC conducts, those also need a positive change in it. The examinations must be really tough to attend and only those students who were sincere in their studies throughout they should be passed and promoted, not a bulk of citizen with a BCS guide book in their hand come and be a bureaucrat of our country. Actually all these will be possible and will happen when we will be matured enough to learn how to stop promoting politics in every sectors. We can hopefully follow the Japanese model and be able to establish some sort of and dynamics with some limitations. But to start with , we need some solid people who are not sellable at all at any cost and not ethically handicapped and need some ethics inbuilt in the candidates and in the system as well.

References
1. Davies, Roger J. and Ikeno, Osamu, (2002). The Japanese Mind, Tokyo: Tuttle Publishing.
2. Koh, B C, (1991). Japan’s Administrative Elite, Oxford: University of California Press.
3. Rahman , Mizanur Khondaker, (2008). Amakudari of Civil Servants in Japan: An Examination of the Vices and Virtues and Population of Reforms, available at www.ic.nanzan-u.ac.jp/MCENTER/
4. Nakane, Chie, (1970). Japanese Society, Tokyo: Charles E. Tuttle Co.: Publisher.
5. National Personnel Authority, (2000). International Affairs Division, Japanese Government, December.
6. National Personnel Authority (NPA) Activities, (2015). Fiscal Year.
7. Tanaka, Hideaki, (2009). The Civil Service System and Governance in Japan, available at http://www.tokyofoundation.org/en/articles/2009/the-civil-service-system-and-governance.
8. Wahhab, M. A. (2009), Civil Service Recruitment Policy in Bangladesh; A Critical Analysis, In Paper submitted for NAPSIPAG International Conference, December, pp. 11-13.
9. Jannatul Ferdous, (2015). Recruitment in Bangladesh Civil Service: Do Meritorious Get Enough Representation?, SJPG, Volume 37, Number 2, December, available at http://sjpg.pactu.edu.np/content/recruitment-bangladesh-civil-service-do-meritorious-get-enough-representation .
10. Ali, A.M.M. shawkat, (2007). Civil service Management in Bangladesh: An Agenda for Policy Reform. Dhaka: UPL.
11. Jahan, Momtaz, (2012). Recruitment and Selection Process in Bangladesh Civil Service: A Critical Overview, Public Policy and Administration Research, 2(5), 29-36.
12. Ministry of Public Administration, (2011), GOB.
13. Paul, Biru Paksha, (2017). A fair recruitment policy for a stronger government, The Daily Star, 8 October.
14. Transparency International Bangladesh, (2007). Bangladesh Public Service Commission: A Diagnostic Study. Dhaka: TIB