Abstract The administration of surfactant to premature infants is a proven therapy for the treatment of respiratory distress syndrome

Abstract
The administration of surfactant to premature infants is a proven therapy for the treatment of respiratory distress syndrome (RDS). The spectrum of methods reported is vast; including short term intubation with rapid extubation (INSURE method), the use of laryngeal mask airways, aerosol, and MIST, a less invasive approach that involves maintaining continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) while administering surfactant using a small tube. Minimally Invasive Surfactant Therapy (MIST) is increasing in use over the last decade. A first prospective randomized controlled trial demonstrated a significant reduction in the use of mechanical ventilation in LISA patients compared to standard treatment with intratracheal bolus administration of surfactant. Another recent study indicates, that LISA may even be superior to INSURE (Herting, 2013). The search for less invasive methods to deliver surfactant outcomes has developed various new options for the treatment of respiratory distress syndrome in neonates.