ABSTRACTCookies hold a significant position in snack foods due to the diversity in taste, crispiness and digestibility.
Mainly there are three types of ingredients that are used in cookies i.e wheat flour, fat and sugar. In gluten-free cookies the wheat flour are changed by other constituent. The purpose of the present study is to determine the effects of the flour properties of different gluten-free flours on cookie quality. Many types of gluten-free flours, including yellow maize, precooked yellow maize, buckwheat, teff and short-grain and long-grain rice flour, were used.
The flour quality (protein, damaged starch content, particle size, flour hydration properties and oil absorption), dough properties (texture) and cookie parameters (final diameter, spread factor, texture, colour and acceptability) were calculated. Coarse-grained rice flours formed cookies with a larger diameter and spread factor, darker colour and lower hardness. While rest of the gluten-free cookies had a low spread ratio and greater hardness than wheat cookies, in spite of flour particle size. We have thus produced that it is possible to attain gluten-free cookies with organoleptic acceptability related to that of cookies made from wheat flour. Nevertheless, cookie acceptability was hardly influenced by the cereal origin and their taste.
In this study, the gluten-free cookies will be developed from the following flours mixture: bajra flour, buckwheat flour and ragi flour. Gluten-free cookies will be obtained by varying the proportion of flours. The value of the gluten free cookies recipe is calculated through sensory analysis; using the 9 (Nine) points hedonic scale.
Samples of cookies are subjected to the nutritional analysis viz. moisture content, ash content, crude fiber content total carbohydrate content, total fat and protein content. The blend A3 with flour levels buckwheat flour 60g: ragi flour 40g: bajra flour 100g led to the highest acceptability.
INTRODUCTIONCookies are largely used and generally, they are rich in carbohydrates, fats and calories, but low in fiber, vitamins and minerals. Now, fortification of cookies has developed to enhance its nutritional and functional quality (Awolu et al., 2016). Gluten is a wheat protein that gives structure to breads, cakes, cookies, and other wheat flour based baked goods.
When water is added to the flour and mixed, the proteins glutenin and gliaden present in wheat combine and form a network of gluten. Besides it to provide structure and elasticity to dough, it also capture air within the network and allows baked goods volume to rise and keep desirable characteristics such as an open and airy crumb structure and chewiness of bread products. Cookies, that contain high amount of sugar and fat and low amount of water, are very famous baked products all over the world. The reason is that low moisture content protects cookies from microbial spoilage and increases its shelf life. In the last decade gluten free products importance increase and, in the United States it is regulated by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA). Gluten free claim is defined in the Code of Federal Regulations, it is declared that food that contains gluten less than 20ppm is “Gluten-free” whether the food is naturally free of gluten or it has been specially processed to remove gluten artificially from its traditional formulation.
Coconut flour is also a good source of dietary fibre and it can be used in bakery products. It is characterised by its high performance and its properties such as: prevention of chronic diseases, e.g.
diabetes mellitus, cardiovascular diseases and colon cancer (Trinidad et al., 2006).It has been found that the quality problems associated with using only chestnut or rice ?our can be decreased by using chestnut ?our with rice ?our at a upto some level (Demirkesen et al. 2010b, 2013). It is also stated that by changing rice ?our with chestnut ?our signi?cantly delayed staling of gluten-free breads (Demirkesen et al. 2014). Developing of products that are gluten free to ful?ll the expectations of celiac disease patients is a technological challenge and there is a need of gluten free products as the request for gluten free products is increasing day by day worldwide with the growth in the number of celiac patients (Cureton and Fasano 2009).
Celiac disease is a long time duration autoimmune disorder in which the immune system of celiac patients reacts with gluten, i.e., the prolamin proteins of wheat, rye, and barleyThe awareness in the people for celiac disease is rising, an intestinal intolerance to gluten, has increased the demand for gluten-free products. The celiac disease in sensitive people is gluten induced/sensitive entropy portray by damage of small intestinal mucosa caused by gliadin fraction of wheat (Rai et al.
, 2014). The most common efficient remedy for celiac disease is dietary exclusion of gluten. The most common symptoms of the disease are abdominal distension, anorexia, chronic or recurrent diarrhea, failure to thrive or weight loss, vomiting, muscle wasting, celiac crisis (rare), and fatigue (Catassi and Fasano, 2008). An efficient treatment for celiac disease is a gluten-free diet that eliminates cereals containing gluten (Beers and Berkow, 2004). Specially formulated gluten-free foods (as anti to foods that are naturally gluten free, such as corn, beef, or apples) are becoming more and more pervasive in markets stores and in households.
In this report, “gluten-free food” refers to a food that has been specially develop to eliminate gluten as anti to a naturally gluten-free food. Wheat is the major ingredient in most of the foods such as breads, breakfast cereals, breaded foods, crackers, pretzels, pastas and cookies (Hussain et al., 2006). Therefore, wheat is prevented probably the biggest challenge for people with celiac disease.The replacement of gluten presents the main technical issue, as it provide the structure, which is essential for developing high-qualitycereal-based products (Gallagher et al., 2004).
Foods that are permeated in a gluten-free diet contain rice, corn, soy, pea, millet, potato, sorghum, amaranth, quinoa, and buckwheat ?ours and by-products from those raw materials (Schuppan et al., 2005). Buckwheat is useful for celiac patients as its prolamins do not utilize immunological responses like those in cereals. Common buckwheat (Fagopyrum esculentum Moench) is a highly nutritious pseudo-cereal that is a dietary source of protein with useful amino acid composition, vitamins, starch, dietary ?ber, essential minerals, and trace elements (Filipc? ev et al., 2011).One of the possible ways to improve the use of buckwheat could be its utilization in developing for snack products such as biscuits and cookies (Sedej et al.
, 2011). The formation of a gluten network in this type of bakery product is low and unsatisfactory (except for hard sweet or semi sweet biscuits/cookies which is develop by a more developed gluten network due to the low levels of fat and sugar relative to the ?our). Moreover, the texture of these products is primarily mature to starch gelatinization and supercooled sugar rather than a protein/starch structure (Gallagher et al., 2004). Hence, buckwheat is a good raw material for gluten-free cookies.
Research on improving the quality and sensory parameters of gluten-free baked goods has been continuing since the early 2000s and also continues today to assure that the growing gluten-free consumer market has access to baked goods that perform same as well as conventional or traditional products. Gluten-free constituent functionality has been extensively studied to boost manufacturers in producing higher quality and more acceptable gluten-free baked goods, meeting the growing consumer demand for such products. The aim of this study was not only to employ the nutritional and health bene?ts of the above ?our but also give functional benefits of these ?our in cookies. Rice is also useful cereals for gluten free product development due its nutritional quality hypoallergenic properties, easy. Yet, appreciable work still needs to be done. REVIEW OF LITERATUREGluten is distributed as a prolamin, means it is soluble in alcohol, according to the Osborne classification of proteins, and is a storage protein in plants (Niewinski, 2008).
The Knotty protein fraction in wheat gluten is gliadin, and it Extract the autoimmune response. In rye and barley the prolamins that makes the feedback are secalin and hordein, respectively (Niewinski, 2008). In wheat, gluten is developed from both gliadin and glutenin. However rye and barley do not contain gliadin, but still they are classified as sources of gluten, in the terms of initiating a celiac response, which is not always made clear in the literature. It was not until 2003 that the other offending proteins were identified.Vader et al. (1953) try to identify protein fractions that could also rise the symptoms of celiac disease.
The researchers were looking for a negotiate T-cell feedback in the presence of prolamin fractions from rye and barley (secalin and hordein, respectively) (Vader et al., 2003). They contain avenin from oats too, since it was found that oats also looks to produce symptoms matching gluten consumption. Gluten-specific T-cells were accelerated in the presence of hordein and secalin, but not of avenin (Vader et al., 2003).
People trying to avoid gluten must retain a constant vigilance, as some processed foods and medications use wheat for fillers. Gluten can also be used in meat fillers, as in hot dogs and sausages, salad dressings, and also in seasoning packets (Vader et al., 2003; Alvarez-Jubete, 2010). Triticale, is formed by a cross between wheat and rye, should also be prevented by those with celiac disease (CD) (Yazynina et al., 2008). Total evasion of any foods that may be a cause for the disease increases the quality of health for celiac sprue patients.
Symptoms are prevented which in turn leads to curing of the microvilli, finally resulting in a normal functioning digestive tract (Yazynina et al., 2008). It is calculated that one in 133 people in the Unites States has been determine with celiac disease (CD), and the Celiac Sprue Foundation calculate there may be over one million people still need diagnoses (CeliacCentral, 2013). Lack of some nutrient related with celiac disease includes iron, calcium, vitamin D, and B vitamins like B6, B12, and B9 folate. Sometimes celiac patients may require to take a multivitamin in order to decrease the lose nutrients (Celiac.org, 2014). The deficiencies are the cause of damage to the microvilli of the small intestine, which restrict absorption of those nutrients.
The microvilli are fingerlike knob which functions in vitamin and mineral absorption. The cause damage to them that is pursue by eating gluten flattens them so there is decreased surface area for nutrient absorption (Maki et al., 1990).Scientists have shown that celiac disease stems from the combination of genetics, environmental factors and infection from immune responses (Murray, 1999)On August 2, 2013, the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) finally decided on an established definition of the term “gluten free.” A product that is Gluten free (GF0 contains less than 20ppm of gluten, does not have an element of any type of wheat, rye, barley, or crossbreeds of these grains, and does not have an ingredient obtain from these grains and that has been processed to remove gluten, if it results in the food containing 20ppm or more parts per million (ppm) gluten (Food Labeling; Gluten-Free Labeling of Foods, FDA, 2013; federalregistrar.
gov, 2013).MATERIAL AND METHOD RAW MATERIALS: In order to make the cookies, the following materials will be purchased from local market: buckwheat flour (BWF), bajra flour (BF), ragi flour (RF), butter, powdered sugar, milk, sodium bicarbonate. : PLANE OF EXPERIMENT:The plan that will be used for experiment is given in table and and also flow chart for the cookie preparation. Parameters Level DescriptionProduct 1 CookieIngredients 7 Buckwheat flour,Bajra flour,Ragi flour,butter, powdered sugar, milk,sodium bicarbonateSamples 4 A1 (Wheat Flour), A2 (Buckwheat flour 100g: Ragi flour 60g: Bajra flour 40g), A3 (Buckwheat flour 60g: Ragi flour 40g: Bajra flour 100g),A4(Buckwheat flour 40g: Ragi flour 100g: Bajra flour 60g)Analysis 4 Physical, Colour, Texture analysis and sensory evaluationFLOW CHART FOR GLUTEN FREE COOKIES PREPARATIONSieve flour and baking powder Wipe Sugar powder and butter togetherAdd sieved flourKnead into doughRoll dough into sheet and make cookies of desired shapeBake at 180°C for 15-20 minPHYSICAL ANALYSIS:Measure diameter and thickness with a vernier calliper at two different places in each cookie and calculate the average for each (considered one value for each cookie). The spread ratio is calculated by using the formula: diameter of cookies divided by height of cookies (Zoulias, Piknis, & Oreopoulou, 2000).
The bake loss of cookies is determined by weighing five cookies before and after baking. The difference in weight is considered average and reported as percent bake loss. COLOUR ANALYSISDetermination of color of cookies is carried out using a Hunter Colorimeter fitted with optical sensor (Hunter Associates Laboratory Inc., Reston, VA, USA) on the basis of CIE L*, a*, b* color system.
L* values measure black to white (0–100), a* values measure redness when positive, and b* values measure yellowness when positive.TEXTURE ANALYSIS Hardness of the baked cookies is determine by using a texture analyzer (TA-XT2i, Stable Micro Systems, UK) in a condensation mode with a pointed blade-cutting probe. Pre-test, test, and post-test speeds were 1.
5, 2, and 10 mm/s, respectively. Hardness, a top peak force, is determined with more than six cookies for each sample. The peak force to breeze the cookies is reported as fracture force in N.
SENSORY EVALUATIONCookies that is form from wheat and whole amaranth seed flours is subjected to sensory evaluation. The cookies are evaluated for taste, aroma, crispiness, color, and overall characteristic. The ratings is on a 9-point hedonic scale ranging from 9 (like extremely) to 1 (dislike extremely). All panelists is regular users of cookies.
Water at room temperature is provided to rinse the mouth between evaluations.