A STUDY ON THE SECONDARY LIGHTNING PROTECTION SYSTEM AT FKEE BUILDING UMP PEKAN

A STUDY ON THE SECONDARY LIGHTNING PROTECTION SYSTEM AT FKEE BUILDING UMP PEKAN, PAHANG
LOKMAN HAKIM BIN SARIPUDIN
Thesis submitted in fulfillment of the requirements
for the award of the degree of
Bachelor of Engineering (Electrical)
Faculty of Electrical & Electronics Engineering
UNIVERSITI MALAYSIA PAHANG
MAY 2015
INTRODUCTIONBackground of Study
Lightning is a natural phenomenon, when it strikes any grounded objects or building structures can causes heavy loss including loss of human life and damage to the structures. Lightning is an electrical discharge caused by imbalances between storm clouds and the ground, or within the clouds themselves. Most lightning occurs within the clouds. During a storm, colliding particles of rain, ice, or snow inside storm clouds increase the imbalance between storm clouds and the ground, and often negatively charge the lower reaches of storm clouds. Objects on the ground, like steeples, trees, and the Earth itself, become positively charged and creating an imbalance that nature seeks to remedy by passing current between the two charges. Lightning is extremely hot and a flash can heat the air around it to temperatures five times hotter than the sun’s surface. This heat causes surrounding air to rapidly expand and vibrate, which creates the pealing thunder we hear a short time after seeing a lightning flash.ADDIN CSL_CITATION { “citationItems” : { “id” : “ITEM-1”, “itemData” : { “DOI” : “10.1088/1748-9326/9/12/121001”, “ISSN” : “17489326”, “abstract” : “Where and when thunderstorms occur is a topic of considerable practical importance for human society\r on which some meteorologists and atmospheric and space scientists carry out research. Owens et al\r (2104 Environ. Res. Lett. 9 http://dx.doi.org/10.1088/1748-9326/9/11/115009 115009 ) have found\r that the occurrence of lightning over the UK is up to u223c50% greater than usual when the magnetic\r field outside the Earthu2019s magnetosphere, in interplanetary space, points towards the Sun rather than\r away from it. But why this happens is not yet totally clear.”, “author” : { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “Rycroft”, “given” : “Michael J.”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” } , “container-title” : “Environmental Research Letters”, “id” : “ITEM-1”, “issue” : “12”, “issued” : { “date-parts” : “2014” }, “publisher” : “IOP Publishing”, “title” : “Thunder and lightning – What determines where and when thunderstorms occur?”, “type” : “article-journal”, “volume” : “9” }, “uris” : “http://www.mendeley.com/documents/?uuid=3e61cb7c-3d4d-4917-a42e-c4a6c244e9a1” } , “mendeley” : { “formattedCitation” : “1”, “plainTextFormattedCitation” : “1”, “previouslyFormattedCitation” : “1” }, “properties” : { }, “schema” : “https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json” }1
A lightning strike can average 100 million volts of electricity, current of up to 100, 000 Amperes and can create heat up to 30 000 ?. Malaysia is known as Asia’s Lightning Capital. In terms of Lightning density, its capital Kuala Lumpur ranks 5th in the world. As National Lightning Safety Institute of United States said, Kuala Lumpur has 48.3 lightning strikes hit the ground for every square kilometer of real estate. Malaysia also experience up to 200 to 300 thunderstorm days a yearADDIN CSL_CITATION { “citationItems” : { “id” : “ITEM-1”, “itemData” : { “DOI” : “10.11113/jt.v66.1507”, “ISSN” : “01279696”, “abstract” : “Lightning strike is an environmental phenomenon that dominates the factors of supplemental deaths as well as injury due to its extremely high current and voltage surge. Many fatalities caused by lightning have been reported whereby some were deaths and some were able to survive with injuries either on a short or long term effect with permanent injury. Since Malaysia is one of the countries in the world with very high lightning activities, a laudable statistics data about death and injuries is needed to increase public awareness on the dangers of lightning. This work manifests an overview, recent statistical data and analysis on lightning fatalities in Malaysia which includes the year, gender, age, status, month, state, activities and location of where the victim was hit by lightning. It describes the favorable image to illustrate the jeopardy of lightning to the public by employing case study and statistical analysis based on medical and newspaper report. u00a9 2014 Penerbit UTM Press. All rights reserved.”, “author” : { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “Ahmad”, “given” : “N. A.”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” }, { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “Abu Bakar”, “given” : “Nur Najihah”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” }, { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “Adzis”, “given” : “Z.”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” } , “container-title” : “Jurnal Teknologi (Sciences and Engineering)”, “id” : “ITEM-1”, “issue” : “1”, “issued” : { “date-parts” : “2013” }, “page” : “9-13”, “title” : “Study of lightning fatalities in Malaysia from 2004 to 2012”, “type” : “article-journal”, “volume” : “66” }, “uris” : “http://www.mendeley.com/documents/?uuid=deb9612a-a64a-4f41-adea-410fa35f6d58” } , “mendeley” : { “formattedCitation” : “2”, “plainTextFormattedCitation” : “2”, “previouslyFormattedCitation” : “2” }, “properties” : { }, “schema” : “https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json” }2.

Each year thousands of assets are damaged or destroyed by lightning. Lightning strike may cause devastation in many ways such as fatalities and properties damaged. Such events and heavy discharge of electric charge from clouds can be prevented if the lightning protection system is properly designed. Lightning protection system is widely use to protect the structure from damage due lightning strike. Networks of air terminal, down conductor and ground electrode are including part of lightning protection system. Protection systems consist of vertical rods or horizontal ground wire must capture the descending lightning thus ensuring the protection of the structures of building. To protect against this destructive phenomena, a properly designed and lightning protection system is required. The purpose of this project is to analyze the effect of lightning strikes on building and also to provide the methods to enhance the building system protection against lightning strikes.

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In designing lightning protection system, the number of vertical rods, their height and the exact positions to be installed must be identified. All these aspects will be clarified after determining the protection zones of lightning strike. For this case, we choose rolling sphere method because it is most effective and universal. Theoretically, an imaginary sphere needs to be rolled on every side of the studied structures. Part of the structure is presumed as protected if it is remains below the curve surface of the imaginary sphere.

The Faculty of Electrical and Electronics Engineering UMP was established in January 2002(formerly known as Kolej Kejuruteraan & Teknologi Malaysia KUKTEM). The prime objective of this faculty is to become a renowned centre of excellence for academics as well as skills and competency training in the field.

The location of FKEE UMP is located in Kuala Pahang, Pekan, Pahang and it is near to ocean. From statistic the higher of amount of lightning strike is recorded in Pekan, Pahang. This is because of the location is near to ocean and the location is open.
For this, the building located at FKEE UMP is chosen as a case study. In summary, this project about is study the system protection on FKEE building against the lightning strike. The analysis of the system protection is based on the direct and indirect strike as well as investigated the grounding system able to withstand the impact of the lightning strike.

Figure 1.1.1: Lightning Stroke Density Map

Figure 1.1.2: Strike Force- Average number thunderstorm days per year in Malaysia
Problem Statement
Electrical and electronic faculty is one of the faculties in UMP. Here are many electronic devices that are very sensitive to foreign objects such as over voltage.
Such a case the effects of lightning are twofold. The lightning current flowing through the conducting parts of the whole structures and associated grounding system creates high voltage differences between conductors. This cause a direct and very serious danger, particularly for equipment connected to the grounding system. Some parts of this current may flow directly through the cabling system into the radio-transmission equipment. On the other hand, the same lightning current creates strong electromagnetic pulses, which can generate large over voltages and over currents in wires of electric and electronic systems.

Proper protection system is crucial to keep the equipment and electronic system intact, avoiding system damage and hazard exposure due to the lightning strike. The cost to repair the damage of the electrical equipment requires great sum of amount, especially for expensive equipment such as electronic circuit, industry plan, cable and etc.

Hence, it will be much more beneficial to spend the money in constructing and designing an effective lightning protection system instead of fixing the damage done by the lightning strike to the building.

So we recommended to propose secondary lighting protection system for this problem.

Objectives
There are three objectives that will be fulfilled by the end of this project as stated below:
To study the performance of the existing lightning protection system (LPS) that available at FKEE UMP Pekan building.

To investigate the lightning protection system design in FKEE UMP building whether it follow the Malaysian Standard of Lightning Protection MS IEC 62305for Lightning Protection.

To verify that lightning protection system at FKEE building can protect the structure in case of lightning strike.

To assess give recommendation or secondary suggestion that can be applied to LPS at FKEE building.

Scope of Project
The scope of project is:
Study the existing LPS system in FKEE Building UMP Pekan and conduct experiment on the earthing system as part of the lightning protection system. The measurement of the earth resistance value is conducted. (A measurement using Kyoritsu Earth Tester Model)
Do the analysis and examine the LPS system that meet the standard and requirement of lightning protection in Malaysia.

Consider only protection of external area.

Recommend suggestion to upgrade lightning protection system in FKEE.

LITERATURE REVIEW
Heading 1 is used in naming each chapter. In this template, it is called Heading 1, UMP Chapter Title. In most cases, a thesis will usually have between five and seven chapters.

The lightning
Lightning can be defined as a transient, high current discharge that builds up on clouds near the surface of earth whose path length is generally measured in kilometer. It occurs when some region of the atmosphere attains an electric charge sufficiently large which come with electric field contain charge cause electrical breakdownADDIN CSL_CITATION { “citationItems” : { “id” : “ITEM-1”, “itemData” : { “DOI” : “10.1088/1748-9326/9/12/121001”, “ISSN” : “17489326”, “abstract” : “Where and when thunderstorms occur is a topic of considerable practical importance for human society\r on which some meteorologists and atmospheric and space scientists carry out research. Owens et al\r (2104 Environ. Res. Lett. 9 http://dx.doi.org/10.1088/1748-9326/9/11/115009 115009 ) have found\r that the occurrence of lightning over the UK is up to u223c50% greater than usual when the magnetic\r field outside the Earthu2019s magnetosphere, in interplanetary space, points towards the Sun rather than\r away from it. But why this happens is not yet totally clear.”, “author” : { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “Rycroft”, “given” : “Michael J.”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” } , “container-title” : “Environmental Research Letters”, “id” : “ITEM-1”, “issue” : “12”, “issued” : { “date-parts” : “2014” }, “publisher” : “IOP Publishing”, “title” : “Thunder and lightning – What determines where and when thunderstorms occur?”, “type” : “article-journal”, “volume” : “9” }, “uris” : “http://www.mendeley.com/documents/?uuid=3e61cb7c-3d4d-4917-a42e-c4a6c244e9a1” } , “mendeley” : { “formattedCitation” : “1”, “plainTextFormattedCitation” : “1”, “previouslyFormattedCitation” : “1” }, “properties” : { }, “schema” : “https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json” }1ADDIN CSL_CITATION { “citationItems” : { “id” : “ITEM-1”, “itemData” : { “DOI” : “10.1541/ieejpes.127.1258”, “ISBN” : “9781849191067”, “ISSN” : “03854213”, “abstract” : “Lightning protection relies upon the application of some of the principles of electricity and the physics of electrical discharges to mitigate the effects of direct currents and electromagnetic fields generated by lightning discharges. Structures, storage facilities for flammable and explosive materials, power distribution and transmission systems, telecommunication systems and electrical and electronic equipment all require such protection. Since the initial launch of the concept of lightning protection by Benjamin Franklin in 1753, the subject of lightning protection has made significant progress, especially in the last century, thanks to experimental observations of the mechanism and properties of lightning flashes. This book summarises the state of the art of lightning protection as it stands today. The information provided in this book should be of value to professionals who are engaged in the engineering practice of lightning protection as a source of reference and to engineering students as a textbook. The main goal of the book is not solely to educate the reader in the art of lightning protection, but to provide the necessary scientific background to enable him or her to make appropriate judgments in situations where conventional engineering solutions might be inadequate. Many engineers engaged in lightning protection have learned their work by applying lightning protection standards without the requisite infor- mation being provided to them on the reasons why they might select a particular sol- ution to a problem under consideration instead of another one. However, several companies have been introducing fraudulent devices, claiming them to be superior to more conventional protection equipment and procedures, taking advantage of a gap in the knowledge of lightning protection engineers in decision-making positions. It is only through the provision of a thorough education to the engineers examining the basic scientific problems associated with lightning protection that one can remedy this situation. This book is intended to provide such an education to satisfy the needs of those working or studying in the field of lightning protection.”, “author” : { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “Cooray”, “given” : “Vernon”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” } , “container-title” : “Ieej Transactions On Power And Energy”, “id” : “ITEM-1”, “issue” : “12”, “issued” : { “date-parts” : “2007” }, “number-of-pages” : “1258-1264”, “title” : “Lightning Protection”, “type” : “book”, “volume” : “127” }, “uris” : “http://www.mendeley.com/documents/?uuid=85bafedd-2aee-4ad0-8efc-0c1098cb7286” } , “mendeley” : { “formattedCitation” : “3”, “plainTextFormattedCitation” : “3”, “previouslyFormattedCitation” : “3” }, “properties” : { }, “schema” : “https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json” }3.

The lightning discharges, that formed in the thunderclouds and seen as a flashes and strike toward the ground. The lightning is happen when the negative charge in cloud become great enough, it seeks an easy path to positively charged ground on below. Typically, this phenomenon occurs during bad weather in which can be generated by volcanic eruption, dust storms and sometimes during the snow storm.

It is common that human beings have looked at lightning as an object of awe for it destructive capabilities and can be attractive phenomenon. It is also known that the lightning is very dangerous because it can damage property and the most terrifying life and death.

Formation of lightning
As a matter of fact, it has been known for very prolonged stretch of time about the conditions for event of lightning however the correct procedure of lightning development has never been confirmed. Concerning now, the acknowledged speculations are about division of electric charge inside a storm and age of electric field. Notwithstanding, late examinations watch that ice, hail and semi solidified water drops likewise contribute during the time spent lightning arrangement. Be that as it may, the investigation of lightning still can’t make sense of the time and area the lightning will strikeADDIN CSL_CITATION { “citationItems” : { “id” : “ITEM-1”, “itemData” : { “DOI” : “10.2174/1652803401204010003”, “ISBN” : “9781107072237”, “ISSN” : “16528034”, “abstract” : “A review of lightning protection concepts introduced by Benjamin Franklin (18th century) and James Clerk Maxwell (19th century) is given. Modern approaches to lightning protection of various structures and systems are discussed. In particular, the widely used electrogeometrical model (one version of which is the Rolling Sphere Method) and the topological shielding are presented. Bonding requirements, needed to avoid side flashes (in air or in the soil), are discussed. Lightning parameters important for lightning protection are reviewed. 1. GENERAL PRINCIPLES Systematic studies of thunderstorm electricity can be traced back to May 10, 1752 in the village of Marly-la-Ville, near Paris. On that day, in the presence of a nearby storm, a retired French dragoon, acting on instructions from Thomas-Francois Dalibard, drew sparks from a tall iron rod that was insulated from ground by wine bottles. The results of this experiment, proposed by Benjamin Franklin, provided the first direct proof that thunderclouds contain electricity. Even before the experiment at Marly, Franklin had proposed the use of grounded rods for lightning protection. Originally, he thought that the lightning rod would silently discharge a thundercloud and thereby would prevent the initiation of lightning. Later, Franklin stated that the lightning rod had a dual purpose: if it cannot prevent the occurrence of lightning, it offers a preferred attachment point for lightning and then a safe path for the lightning current to ground. It is in the latter manner that lightning rods, often referred to as Franklin rods, actually work. There are generally two aspects of lightning protection design: 1) diversion and shielding, primarily intended for structural protection but also serving to reduce the lightning electric and magnetic fields within the structure, and 2) the limiting of currents and voltages on electronic, power, and communication systems via surge protection. Primarily the first aspect will be considered here. Properly designed structural lightning protection systems for ground-based structures serve to provide lightning attachment points and paths for the lightning current to follow from the attachment points into the ground without harm to the protected structure. Such systems are basically composed of three elements: 1) ” air terminals ” at appropriate points on the structure to intercept the lightning, 2) ” down conductors ” to carry the lightning current from the air terminals towardu2026″, “author” : { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “A. Rakov”, “given” : “Vladimir”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” } , “container-title” : “Journal of Lightning Research”, “id” : “ITEM-1”, “issue” : “1”, “issued” : { “date-parts” : “2012” }, “page” : “3-11”, “title” : “Lightning Discharge and Fundamentals of Lightning Protection”, “type” : “article-journal”, “volume” : “4” }, “uris” : “http://www.mendeley.com/documents/?uuid=fae3be35-ae0b-4843-941c-2eb16bd61918” } , “mendeley” : { “formattedCitation” : “4”, “plainTextFormattedCitation” : “4”, “previouslyFormattedCitation” : “4” }, “properties” : { }, “schema” : “https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json” }4.

There is a turbulent domain in an electrical storm. Amid the rainstorm, solid updrafts and downdrafts frequently happened and proximately near each other. The updrafts bring little fluid water beads from the lower area of tempest up to stature of 70000 feet, far over the solidifying level while downdrafts will cut down ice and hail from the upper locale of the tempest. The warmth discharging will happen when solidified water beads crash into hail and ice. The surface of hail will keep somewhat hotter than its encompassing condition because of the warmth and a delicate hail will be shaped.

When the soft hail collides with ice particles and water droplets, the electrons gather on the descending particles and shared off the ascending particles. After that, a thundercloud with positively charged at upper part and negatively charged at lower part was formed since the electrons carry negative charges.

center159385
Figure 2.2.1: Positive and negative charge in thundercloud
From electric perspective, the contrary charges will pull in each other and reduce the isolation. An electric field will be created among upper and lower some part of the thundercloud when the positive and negative charges inside a same cloud start to particular. As the partition remove between the two charges end up plainly bigger, the electric field quality likewise increments. Be that as it may, a lot of charges are expected to shape lightning since environment layer is a decent encasing which avoids stream of electric. Lightning will be shaped just if the quality of electric field is sufficiently adequate to conquer the protection quality of climate layerADDIN CSL_CITATION { “citationItems” : { “id” : “ITEM-1”, “itemData” : { “DOI” : “10.1541/ieejpes.127.1258”, “ISBN” : “9781849191067”, “ISSN” : “03854213”, “abstract” : “Lightning protection relies upon the application of some of the principles of electricity and the physics of electrical discharges to mitigate the effects of direct currents and electromagnetic fields generated by lightning discharges. Structures, storage facilities for flammable and explosive materials, power distribution and transmission systems, telecommunication systems and electrical and electronic equipment all require such protection. Since the initial launch of the concept of lightning protection by Benjamin Franklin in 1753, the subject of lightning protection has made significant progress, especially in the last century, thanks to experimental observations of the mechanism and properties of lightning flashes. This book summarises the state of the art of lightning protection as it stands today. The information provided in this book should be of value to professionals who are engaged in the engineering practice of lightning protection as a source of reference and to engineering students as a textbook. The main goal of the book is not solely to educate the reader in the art of lightning protection, but to provide the necessary scientific background to enable him or her to make appropriate judgments in situations where conventional engineering solutions might be inadequate. Many engineers engaged in lightning protection have learned their work by applying lightning protection standards without the requisite infor- mation being provided to them on the reasons why they might select a particular sol- ution to a problem under consideration instead of another one. However, several companies have been introducing fraudulent devices, claiming them to be superior to more conventional protection equipment and procedures, taking advantage of a gap in the knowledge of lightning protection engineers in decision-making positions. It is only through the provision of a thorough education to the engineers examining the basic scientific problems associated with lightning protection that one can remedy this situation. This book is intended to provide such an education to satisfy the needs of those working or studying in the field of lightning protection.”, “author” : { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “Cooray”, “given” : “Vernon”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” } , “container-title” : “Ieej Transactions On Power And Energy”, “id” : “ITEM-1”, “issue” : “12”, “issued” : { “date-parts” : “2007” }, “number-of-pages” : “1258-1264”, “title” : “Lightning Protection”, “type” : “book”, “volume” : “127” }, “uris” : “http://www.mendeley.com/documents/?uuid=85bafedd-2aee-4ad0-8efc-0c1098cb7286” } , “mendeley” : { “formattedCitation” : “3”, “plainTextFormattedCitation” : “3”, “previouslyFormattedCitation” : “3” }, “properties” : { }, “schema” : “https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json” }3.

11861801422410

Figure 2.2.2: Stepped leader from thundercloud
The positive charges begin to move upward into the air through building or tree and this upward rising positive charge called streamer. It approaches the ventured pioneer noticeable all around over the ground and they may meet each other at a height around equivalent to the length of a football field. A total leading pathway is shaped once there is a contact between ventured pioneer from the thundercloud and streamer starting from the earliest stage. Along these lines, lightning strike will happen and this underlying strike is taken after by a couple of auxiliary strikes or charge surges in quick progression.

Type of lightning
Overhead clouds and the earth structure such as ground, tower, tall building, and tree forms two electrodes, anode and cathode. Then, the long air column between them reacts as the breakdown channels (phase to earth). Lightning flashes also occur between the thunderclouds known as phase to phase. The negative charge in cloud seeks an easy path to positively charged ground on belowADDIN CSL_CITATION { “citationItems” : { “id” : “ITEM-1”, “itemData” : { “DOI” : “10.2174/1652803401204010003”, “ISBN” : “9781107072237”, “ISSN” : “16528034”, “abstract” : “A review of lightning protection concepts introduced by Benjamin Franklin (18th century) and James Clerk Maxwell (19th century) is given. Modern approaches to lightning protection of various structures and systems are discussed. In particular, the widely used electrogeometrical model (one version of which is the Rolling Sphere Method) and the topological shielding are presented. Bonding requirements, needed to avoid side flashes (in air or in the soil), are discussed. Lightning parameters important for lightning protection are reviewed. 1. GENERAL PRINCIPLES Systematic studies of thunderstorm electricity can be traced back to May 10, 1752 in the village of Marly-la-Ville, near Paris. On that day, in the presence of a nearby storm, a retired French dragoon, acting on instructions from Thomas-Francois Dalibard, drew sparks from a tall iron rod that was insulated from ground by wine bottles. The results of this experiment, proposed by Benjamin Franklin, provided the first direct proof that thunderclouds contain electricity. Even before the experiment at Marly, Franklin had proposed the use of grounded rods for lightning protection. Originally, he thought that the lightning rod would silently discharge a thundercloud and thereby would prevent the initiation of lightning. Later, Franklin stated that the lightning rod had a dual purpose: if it cannot prevent the occurrence of lightning, it offers a preferred attachment point for lightning and then a safe path for the lightning current to ground. It is in the latter manner that lightning rods, often referred to as Franklin rods, actually work. There are generally two aspects of lightning protection design: 1) diversion and shielding, primarily intended for structural protection but also serving to reduce the lightning electric and magnetic fields within the structure, and 2) the limiting of currents and voltages on electronic, power, and communication systems via surge protection. Primarily the first aspect will be considered here. Properly designed structural lightning protection systems for ground-based structures serve to provide lightning attachment points and paths for the lightning current to follow from the attachment points into the ground without harm to the protected structure. Such systems are basically composed of three elements: 1) ” air terminals ” at appropriate points on the structure to intercept the lightning, 2) ” down conductors ” to carry the lightning current from the air terminals towardu2026″, “author” : { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “A. Rakov”, “given” : “Vladimir”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” } , “container-title” : “Journal of Lightning Research”, “id” : “ITEM-1”, “issue” : “1”, “issued” : { “date-parts” : “2012” }, “page” : “3-11”, “title” : “Lightning Discharge and Fundamentals of Lightning Protection”, “type” : “article-journal”, “volume” : “4” }, “uris” : “http://www.mendeley.com/documents/?uuid=5529789f-bdcb-4ea8-8196-42d34678abc8” } , “mendeley” : { “formattedCitation” : “4”, “plainTextFormattedCitation” : “4”, “previouslyFormattedCitation” : “4” }, “properties” : { }, “schema” : “https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json” }4.

The lightning discharges can be divided into two categories which are cloud flashes and ground flashes. The cloud flash happens when the lightning discharges happen in cloud where it came in contacts within the thunderclouds. The cloud flashes consist of intra cloud flashes, air discharge and inter cloud flashes as showed in figure 2.3.1
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Figure 2.3.1: Flashes intra cloud
In ground flash, the lightning was discharged to make contact with the earth object in which the earth objects contain of positive charges. The protections to the equipment in power system are very important to avoid the lightning flash’s damages in which it has destructive capability to destroy the equipment. The ground flash can be divided into four categories which are downward negative, downward positive, upward negative and upward positive. The ground flash is illustrated as in figure 2.3.2.

(b) (c) (d)
Figure 2.3.2(a) : downward negative
(b) : downward positive
(c) : upward positive
(d) : upward negative
The cloud contains of small and large drops of water. The large drops (diameter less than 0.3cm) descend with higher velocity due to the gravity. In the atmosphere under fair-weather condition, the normal electric field exists. For the charge formation in the cloud, the large drops of water are polarized by induction with the ions exist in the cloud. This interaction caused the charges separation, where the upper side of the cloud carries positive charges and the lower portion side carries negative charges. The creation of the flash can be divided into two groups, the first stroke and the second stroke.

Component of the Lightning Protection System
The basis of the lightning protection principle is to effectively protect a structure such as building, mast tower or similar self-supporting object. Based on figure 2.4.1, in order to protect a structure and building against the direct strike of a lightning basically comprises in three subsystems as below:
1. Air termination system that serves as attachment point to intercept the lightning current.

2. Down-conductor system to bring down the lightning current safely to the earth surface.

3. Earth termination subsystem to effectively dissipate the lightning discharge energy into the general mass of the earth.

450540960
Figure 2.4.1: Basic diagram of lightning protection systemADDIN CSL_CITATION { “citationItems” : { “id” : “ITEM-1”, “itemData” : { “DOI” : “10.1541/ieejpes.127.1258”, “ISBN” : “9781849191067”, “ISSN” : “03854213”, “abstract” : “Lightning protection relies upon the application of some of the principles of electricity and the physics of electrical discharges to mitigate the effects of direct currents and electromagnetic fields generated by lightning discharges. Structures, storage facilities for flammable and explosive materials, power distribution and transmission systems, telecommunication systems and electrical and electronic equipment all require such protection. Since the initial launch of the concept of lightning protection by Benjamin Franklin in 1753, the subject of lightning protection has made significant progress, especially in the last century, thanks to experimental observations of the mechanism and properties of lightning flashes. This book summarises the state of the art of lightning protection as it stands today. The information provided in this book should be of value to professionals who are engaged in the engineering practice of lightning protection as a source of reference and to engineering students as a textbook. The main goal of the book is not solely to educate the reader in the art of lightning protection, but to provide the necessary scientific background to enable him or her to make appropriate judgments in situations where conventional engineering solutions might be inadequate. Many engineers engaged in lightning protection have learned their work by applying lightning protection standards without the requisite infor- mation being provided to them on the reasons why they might select a particular sol- ution to a problem under consideration instead of another one. However, several companies have been introducing fraudulent devices, claiming them to be superior to more conventional protection equipment and procedures, taking advantage of a gap in the knowledge of lightning protection engineers in decision-making positions. It is only through the provision of a thorough education to the engineers examining the basic scientific problems associated with lightning protection that one can remedy this situation. This book is intended to provide such an education to satisfy the needs of those working or studying in the field of lightning protection.”, “author” : { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “Cooray”, “given” : “Vernon”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” } , “container-title” : “Ieej Transactions On Power And Energy”, “id” : “ITEM-1”, “issue” : “12”, “issued” : { “date-parts” : “2007” }, “number-of-pages” : “1258-1264”, “title” : “Lightning Protection”, “type” : “book”, “volume” : “127” }, “uris” : “http://www.mendeley.com/documents/?uuid=85bafedd-2aee-4ad0-8efc-0c1098cb7286” } , “mendeley” : { “formattedCitation” : “3”, “plainTextFormattedCitation” : “3”, “previouslyFormattedCitation” : “3” }, “properties” : { }, “schema” : “https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json” }3
Selection of Lightning Protection System
The necessity of a lightning protection system for a structure must be determined first before designing it and it depends on risk of damage to the structure against direct lightning strike. If the lightning protection system is required, a proper level of protection must be selected.

In selection process of lightning protection system, it is important to know about dimension of structure, location and lightning ground flash density in the area. The actual frequency of lightning strike to the structure, Nc and collection area of the structure, Ae will be compared with annual frequency of lightning strike, Nd. From the comparison of parameters, the necessity and level of lightning protection level can be obtained. If Nc ? Nd, the lightning protection system is unnecessary. In case of Nc ? Nd, a lightning protection system with efficiency, E = 1 – Nc/Nd must be installed at the structureADDIN CSL_CITATION { “citationItems” : { “id” : “ITEM-1”, “itemData” : { “DOI” : “10.1541/ieejpes.127.1258”, “ISBN” : “9781849191067”, “ISSN” : “03854213”, “abstract” : “Lightning protection relies upon the application of some of the principles of electricity and the physics of electrical discharges to mitigate the effects of direct currents and electromagnetic fields generated by lightning discharges. Structures, storage facilities for flammable and explosive materials, power distribution and transmission systems, telecommunication systems and electrical and electronic equipment all require such protection. Since the initial launch of the concept of lightning protection by Benjamin Franklin in 1753, the subject of lightning protection has made significant progress, especially in the last century, thanks to experimental observations of the mechanism and properties of lightning flashes. This book summarises the state of the art of lightning protection as it stands today. The information provided in this book should be of value to professionals who are engaged in the engineering practice of lightning protection as a source of reference and to engineering students as a textbook. The main goal of the book is not solely to educate the reader in the art of lightning protection, but to provide the necessary scientific background to enable him or her to make appropriate judgments in situations where conventional engineering solutions might be inadequate. Many engineers engaged in lightning protection have learned their work by applying lightning protection standards without the requisite infor- mation being provided to them on the reasons why they might select a particular sol- ution to a problem under consideration instead of another one. However, several companies have been introducing fraudulent devices, claiming them to be superior to more conventional protection equipment and procedures, taking advantage of a gap in the knowledge of lightning protection engineers in decision-making positions. It is only through the provision of a thorough education to the engineers examining the basic scientific problems associated with lightning protection that one can remedy this situation. This book is intended to provide such an education to satisfy the needs of those working or studying in the field of lightning protection.”, “author” : { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “Cooray”, “given” : “Vernon”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” } , “container-title” : “Ieej Transactions On Power And Energy”, “id” : “ITEM-1”, “issue” : “12”, “issued” : { “date-parts” : “2007” }, “number-of-pages” : “1258-1264”, “title” : “Lightning Protection”, “type” : “book”, “volume” : “127” }, “uris” : “http://www.mendeley.com/documents/?uuid=85bafedd-2aee-4ad0-8efc-0c1098cb7286” } , “mendeley” : { “formattedCitation” : “3”, “plainTextFormattedCitation” : “3”, “previouslyFormattedCitation” : “3” }, “properties” : { }, “schema” : “https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json” }3.

So, the lightning protection system must be designed to fulfil the requirement stated in the standard based on the lightning protection level. If the efficiency of installed protection system is lower than the standard, an additional protection measure must be installed.
Protection level LPS efficiency , E
I 0.98
II 0.95
III 0.90
IV 0.80
Table 2.5: Efficiency of lightning protection system based on protection levelADDIN CSL_CITATION { “citationItems” : { “id” : “ITEM-1”, “itemData” : { “DOI” : “10.1541/ieejpes.127.1258”, “ISBN” : “9781849191067”, “ISSN” : “03854213”, “abstract” : “Lightning protection relies upon the application of some of the principles of electricity and the physics of electrical discharges to mitigate the effects of direct currents and electromagnetic fields generated by lightning discharges. Structures, storage facilities for flammable and explosive materials, power distribution and transmission systems, telecommunication systems and electrical and electronic equipment all require such protection. Since the initial launch of the concept of lightning protection by Benjamin Franklin in 1753, the subject of lightning protection has made significant progress, especially in the last century, thanks to experimental observations of the mechanism and properties of lightning flashes. This book summarises the state of the art of lightning protection as it stands today. The information provided in this book should be of value to professionals who are engaged in the engineering practice of lightning protection as a source of reference and to engineering students as a textbook. The main goal of the book is not solely to educate the reader in the art of lightning protection, but to provide the necessary scientific background to enable him or her to make appropriate judgments in situations where conventional engineering solutions might be inadequate. Many engineers engaged in lightning protection have learned their work by applying lightning protection standards without the requisite infor- mation being provided to them on the reasons why they might select a particular sol- ution to a problem under consideration instead of another one. However, several companies have been introducing fraudulent devices, claiming them to be superior to more conventional protection equipment and procedures, taking advantage of a gap in the knowledge of lightning protection engineers in decision-making positions. It is only through the provision of a thorough education to the engineers examining the basic scientific problems associated with lightning protection that one can remedy this situation. This book is intended to provide such an education to satisfy the needs of those working or studying in the field of lightning protection.”, “author” : { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “Cooray”, “given” : “Vernon”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” } , “container-title” : “Ieej Transactions On Power And Energy”, “id” : “ITEM-1”, “issue” : “12”, “issued” : { “date-parts” : “2007” }, “number-of-pages” : “1258-1264”, “title” : “Lightning Protection”, “type” : “book”, “volume” : “127” }, “uris” : “http://www.mendeley.com/documents/?uuid=85bafedd-2aee-4ad0-8efc-0c1098cb7286” } , “mendeley” : { “formattedCitation” : “3”, “plainTextFormattedCitation” : “3”, “previouslyFormattedCitation” : “3” }, “properties” : { }, “schema” : “https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json” }3
Air termination
Generally, as a part of lightning protection system, an air termination rod is installed to intercept direct lightning strike to the structure before conducts the lightning current to be dispersed into the ground. Air terminal rod is made from metallic element. The air terminal usually locates at the corners, exposed edges, and on the top of protected building or structureADDIN CSL_CITATION { “citationItems” : { “id” : “ITEM-1”, “itemData” : { “DOI” : “10.1541/ieejpes.127.1258”, “ISBN” : “9781849191067”, “ISSN” : “03854213”, “abstract” : “Lightning protection relies upon the application of some of the principles of electricity and the physics of electrical discharges to mitigate the effects of direct currents and electromagnetic fields generated by lightning discharges. Structures, storage facilities for flammable and explosive materials, power distribution and transmission systems, telecommunication systems and electrical and electronic equipment all require such protection. Since the initial launch of the concept of lightning protection by Benjamin Franklin in 1753, the subject of lightning protection has made significant progress, especially in the last century, thanks to experimental observations of the mechanism and properties of lightning flashes. This book summarises the state of the art of lightning protection as it stands today. The information provided in this book should be of value to professionals who are engaged in the engineering practice of lightning protection as a source of reference and to engineering students as a textbook. The main goal of the book is not solely to educate the reader in the art of lightning protection, but to provide the necessary scientific background to enable him or her to make appropriate judgments in situations where conventional engineering solutions might be inadequate. Many engineers engaged in lightning protection have learned their work by applying lightning protection standards without the requisite infor- mation being provided to them on the reasons why they might select a particular sol- ution to a problem under consideration instead of another one. However, several companies have been introducing fraudulent devices, claiming them to be superior to more conventional protection equipment and procedures, taking advantage of a gap in the knowledge of lightning protection engineers in decision-making positions. It is only through the provision of a thorough education to the engineers examining the basic scientific problems associated with lightning protection that one can remedy this situation. This book is intended to provide such an education to satisfy the needs of those working or studying in the field of lightning protection.”, “author” : { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “Cooray”, “given” : “Vernon”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” } , “container-title” : “Ieej Transactions On Power And Energy”, “id” : “ITEM-1”, “issue” : “12”, “issued” : { “date-parts” : “2007” }, “number-of-pages” : “1258-1264”, “title” : “Lightning Protection”, “type” : “book”, “volume” : “127” }, “uris” : “http://www.mendeley.com/documents/?uuid=85bafedd-2aee-4ad0-8efc-0c1098cb7286” } , “mendeley” : { “formattedCitation” : “3”, “plainTextFormattedCitation” : “3”, “previouslyFormattedCitation” : “3” }, “properties” : { }, “schema” : “https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json” }3ADDIN CSL_CITATION { “citationItems” : { “id” : “ITEM-1”, “itemData” : { “DOI” : “10.1016/j.epsr.2016.10.003”, “ISBN” : “9781479987542”, “ISSN” : “03787796”, “abstract” : “This paper presents a study on the overvoltages that appear between the conductive parts of a structure and its Lightning Protection System (LPS) when it is struck by lightning. The overvoltage calculation is carried out in frequency-domain using the Method of Moments and the results are translated to time-domain by Fourier transform. The structure is represented by an interconnected steelwork and the voltages are computed for standard waveforms corresponding to negative first and subsequent strokes. The likelihood of insulation breakdown is assessed by the disruptive effect method, with conservative criteria that take into account oscillatory voltage waveforms. It is shown that sparks between LPS and structure steelwork are likely to occur, both for first and subsequent strokes, even if the separation distance as prescribed by the international standard is observed. The results also show that bonding the LPS to the steelwork at the top of the structure prevents such sparks for the considered conditions: structure height up to 60 m and Lightning Protection Level (LPL) III/IV. 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In order to determine location of air terminal, there are three methods that widely used which are protective angle or fixed angle method, rolling sphere method and mesh method. Protective angle method is applied to structure with simple shape and plane surface suitable to mesh method. Meanwhile, rolling sphere method is suitable for all type of structures and mostly used to determine the location of air terminal. In this project, two methods will be applied to determine the protection area of FKEE building; empirical method which is fixed angle method and electro geometric method which is rolling sphere method.

Both methods are applied in order to get more accurate outcome when determining the protection area of FKEE building from the position of air terminals that have been installed at the structure. So, the objective of this project to make sure that the LPS at FKEE building can protect the structure in case of direct lightning strike.

Fixed angle method

Figure 2.7.1: Illustrated of angle methodADDIN CSL_CITATION { “citationItems” : { “id” : “ITEM-1”, “itemData” : { “DOI” : “10.1541/ieejpes.127.1258”, “ISBN” : “9781849191067”, “ISSN” : “03854213”, “abstract” : “Lightning protection relies upon the application of some of the principles of electricity and the physics of electrical discharges to mitigate the effects of direct currents and electromagnetic fields generated by lightning discharges. Structures, storage facilities for flammable and explosive materials, power distribution and transmission systems, telecommunication systems and electrical and electronic equipment all require such protection. Since the initial launch of the concept of lightning protection by Benjamin Franklin in 1753, the subject of lightning protection has made significant progress, especially in the last century, thanks to experimental observations of the mechanism and properties of lightning flashes. This book summarises the state of the art of lightning protection as it stands today. The information provided in this book should be of value to professionals who are engaged in the engineering practice of lightning protection as a source of reference and to engineering students as a textbook. The main goal of the book is not solely to educate the reader in the art of lightning protection, but to provide the necessary scientific background to enable him or her to make appropriate judgments in situations where conventional engineering solutions might be inadequate. Many engineers engaged in lightning protection have learned their work by applying lightning protection standards without the requisite infor- mation being provided to them on the reasons why they might select a particular sol- ution to a problem under consideration instead of another one. However, several companies have been introducing fraudulent devices, claiming them to be superior to more conventional protection equipment and procedures, taking advantage of a gap in the knowledge of lightning protection engineers in decision-making positions. It is only through the provision of a thorough education to the engineers examining the basic scientific problems associated with lightning protection that one can remedy this situation. This book is intended to provide such an education to satisfy the needs of those working or studying in the field of lightning protection.”, “author” : { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “Cooray”, “given” : “Vernon”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” } , “container-title” : “Ieej Transactions On Power And Energy”, “id” : “ITEM-1”, “issue” : “12”, “issued” : { “date-parts” : “2007” }, “number-of-pages” : “1258-1264”, “title” : “Lightning Protection”, “type” : “book”, “volume” : “127” }, “uris” : “http://www.mendeley.com/documents/?uuid=85bafedd-2aee-4ad0-8efc-0c1098cb7286” } , “mendeley” : { “formattedCitation” : “3”, “plainTextFormattedCitation” : “3”, “previouslyFormattedCitation” : “3” }, “properties” : { }, “schema” : “https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json” }3
The fixed angle or cone method as illustrated in figure 2.7 is often used to determine the range of protected volume around tall constructions i.e. antenna towers. Protection zone or of lightning protection system may be defined as volume that inside the cone as figure 2.7 which an air termination or lightning rod are provided to protect it against lightning strike. The air termination or lightning rod draws the lightning strike to it. This method recognizes the attractive effect of the air termination or lightning rod devices as a function of striking distances.

Figure 2.7.2Protective angle ? as a function of height h depending on the class LPS
The striking distances is the length of the final jump of the step leader as it has the potential to exceed the breakdown resistance of the last gap of the ground.

Rolling Sphere Method
Rolling sphere method as in figure 1.4 has described the procedure for the determination of protected volume derived by this method. Application of the rolling sphere method actually involved an imaginary sphere of a prescribe radius over air termination network. The sphere rolls up and over (and is supported by) air terminal, shield wires, and other grounded metal objects intended for direct lightning protection .The structure below the sphere as in figure 2.8 is considered to be under protection. Equipment that touches the sphere or penetrates its surface is not protected.

Figure 2.8: Example of rolling sphere method on buildingADDIN CSL_CITATION { “citationItems” : { “id” : “ITEM-1”, “itemData” : { “DOI” : “10.1541/ieejpes.127.1258”, “ISBN” : “9781849191067”, “ISSN” : “03854213”, “abstract” : “Lightning protection relies upon the application of some of the principles of electricity and the physics of electrical discharges to mitigate the effects of direct currents and electromagnetic fields generated by lightning discharges. Structures, storage facilities for flammable and explosive materials, power distribution and transmission systems, telecommunication systems and electrical and electronic equipment all require such protection. Since the initial launch of the concept of lightning protection by Benjamin Franklin in 1753, the subject of lightning protection has made significant progress, especially in the last century, thanks to experimental observations of the mechanism and properties of lightning flashes. This book summarises the state of the art of lightning protection as it stands today. The information provided in this book should be of value to professionals who are engaged in the engineering practice of lightning protection as a source of reference and to engineering students as a textbook. The main goal of the book is not solely to educate the reader in the art of lightning protection, but to provide the necessary scientific background to enable him or her to make appropriate judgments in situations where conventional engineering solutions might be inadequate. Many engineers engaged in lightning protection have learned their work by applying lightning protection standards without the requisite infor- mation being provided to them on the reasons why they might select a particular sol- ution to a problem under consideration instead of another one. However, several companies have been introducing fraudulent devices, claiming them to be superior to more conventional protection equipment and procedures, taking advantage of a gap in the knowledge of lightning protection engineers in decision-making positions. It is only through the provision of a thorough education to the engineers examining the basic scientific problems associated with lightning protection that one can remedy this situation. This book is intended to provide such an education to satisfy the needs of those working or studying in the field of lightning protection.”, “author” : { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “Cooray”, “given” : “Vernon”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” } , “container-title” : “Ieej Transactions On Power And Energy”, “id” : “ITEM-1”, “issue” : “12”, “issued” : { “date-parts” : “2007” }, “number-of-pages” : “1258-1264”, “title” : “Lightning Protection”, “type” : “book”, “volume” : “127” }, “uris” : “http://www.mendeley.com/documents/?uuid=85bafedd-2aee-4ad0-8efc-0c1098cb7286” } , “mendeley” : { “formattedCitation” : “3”, “plainTextFormattedCitation” : “3”, “previouslyFormattedCitation” : “3” }, “properties” : { }, “schema” : “https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json” }3
Each lateral point of the structure touched by rolling sphere is a possible point of strike. However, the probability for flashes to the sides is generally negligible for structures lower than 60m. For taller structures, the major part of all flashes will hit the top, horizontal leading edges and corners of the structure. Only a few portions of all flashes will be reflected to the side of the structure. Therefore an amount consideration should be given in installing a lateral air-termination system on the upper part of tall structures. In this paper the rolling sphere method is applied for positioning of air termination system for the power and desalination plant.
Protection Level Radius (m)
I 20
II 30
III 45
IV 60
Table 2.8: Radius of sphere depends on protection levelADDIN CSL_CITATION { “citationItems” : { “id” : “ITEM-1”, “itemData” : { “DOI” : “10.1541/ieejpes.127.1258”, “ISBN” : “9781849191067”, “ISSN” : “03854213”, “abstract” : “Lightning protection relies upon the application of some of the principles of electricity and the physics of electrical discharges to mitigate the effects of direct currents and electromagnetic fields generated by lightning discharges. Structures, storage facilities for flammable and explosive materials, power distribution and transmission systems, telecommunication systems and electrical and electronic equipment all require such protection. Since the initial launch of the concept of lightning protection by Benjamin Franklin in 1753, the subject of lightning protection has made significant progress, especially in the last century, thanks to experimental observations of the mechanism and properties of lightning flashes. This book summarises the state of the art of lightning protection as it stands today. The information provided in this book should be of value to professionals who are engaged in the engineering practice of lightning protection as a source of reference and to engineering students as a textbook. The main goal of the book is not solely to educate the reader in the art of lightning protection, but to provide the necessary scientific background to enable him or her to make appropriate judgments in situations where conventional engineering solutions might be inadequate. Many engineers engaged in lightning protection have learned their work by applying lightning protection standards without the requisite infor- mation being provided to them on the reasons why they might select a particular sol- ution to a problem under consideration instead of another one. However, several companies have been introducing fraudulent devices, claiming them to be superior to more conventional protection equipment and procedures, taking advantage of a gap in the knowledge of lightning protection engineers in decision-making positions. It is only through the provision of a thorough education to the engineers examining the basic scientific problems associated with lightning protection that one can remedy this situation. This book is intended to provide such an education to satisfy the needs of those working or studying in the field of lightning protection.”, “author” : { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “Cooray”, “given” : “Vernon”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” } , “container-title” : “Ieej Transactions On Power And Energy”, “id” : “ITEM-1”, “issue” : “12”, “issued” : { “date-parts” : “2007” }, “number-of-pages” : “1258-1264”, “title” : “Lightning Protection”, “type” : “book”, “volume” : “127” }, “uris” : “http://www.mendeley.com/documents/?uuid=85bafedd-2aee-4ad0-8efc-0c1098cb7286” } , “mendeley” : { “formattedCitation” : “3”, “plainTextFormattedCitation” : “3”, “previouslyFormattedCitation” : “3” }, “properties” : { }, “schema” : “https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json” }3
Mesh method
Mesh method can be used universally regardless of height of the building and shape of the roof. Mesh method network can be arrange according to the class of LPS. Using ridge and outer edges of the building as an air termination system. The air termination conductor on the outer edge of the structure must be laid as close to the edge as possible.

Class of LPS Mesh size
I 5 x 5 m
II 10 x 10 m
III 15 x15 m
IV 20 x 20 m
Table 2.9 Class of LPS for mesh method

Figure 2.9Example of air termination conductor close to edge
Earth termination system
An earth termination system or also known grounding system is a part of external lightning protection system that provide a path for high lightning current from down conductor to be dissipated safely into the ground without affected the structure being protected. Many factors affect the performance of grounding system but there are two major parameters which are resistance to remote earth (earth resistance) and resistivity of local soil (soil resistivity)ADDIN CSL_CITATION { “citationItems” : { “id” : “ITEM-1”, “itemData” : { “author” : { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “Lim”, “given” : “Siow Chun”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” }, { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “Gomes”, “given” : “Chandima”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” }, { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “Zainal”, “given” : “Mohd”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” }, { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “Ab”, “given” : “Abidin”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” } , “container-title” : “8th Asia Pacific International Conference on Lightning”, “id” : “ITEM-1”, “issued” : { “date-parts” : “2013” }, “page” : “145-148”, “title” : “Preliminary Grounding Performance of Bentonite Mixed Concrete Encased Steel Cage under High Soil Resistivity Condition”, “type” : “article-journal” }, “uris” : “http://www.mendeley.com/documents/?uuid=f4103c63-faae-4166-ac4f-811f4fdcc6c2” } , “mendeley” : { “formattedCitation” : “6”, “plainTextFormattedCitation” : “6”, “previouslyFormattedCitation” : “6” }, “properties” : { }, “schema” : “https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json” }6. Information about these parameters is important in designing an effective and reliable earth termination system that will protect the structure.

Earth Resistance
Theoretically, the value of earth resistance should be as low as possible to dissipate lightning current to the ground and sustain the effectiveness of grounding system. A complete grounding system might have only an earth electrode or integrated earth electrodes. There are a few factors that can affect the value of earth resistance such as connection between earth electrode and resistivity of local soil.

In standard, the value of earth resistance should be 10 ? or less to ensure that the system is able to operate effectivelyADDIN CSL_CITATION { “citationItems” : { “id” : “ITEM-1”, “itemData” : { “DOI” : “10.1541/ieejpes.127.1258”, “ISBN” : “9781849191067”, “ISSN” : “03854213”, “abstract” : “Lightning protection relies upon the application of some of the principles of electricity and the physics of electrical discharges to mitigate the effects of direct currents and electromagnetic fields generated by lightning discharges. Structures, storage facilities for flammable and explosive materials, power distribution and transmission systems, telecommunication systems and electrical and electronic equipment all require such protection. Since the initial launch of the concept of lightning protection by Benjamin Franklin in 1753, the subject of lightning protection has made significant progress, especially in the last century, thanks to experimental observations of the mechanism and properties of lightning flashes. This book summarises the state of the art of lightning protection as it stands today. The information provided in this book should be of value to professionals who are engaged in the engineering practice of lightning protection as a source of reference and to engineering students as a textbook. The main goal of the book is not solely to educate the reader in the art of lightning protection, but to provide the necessary scientific background to enable him or her to make appropriate judgments in situations where conventional engineering solutions might be inadequate. Many engineers engaged in lightning protection have learned their work by applying lightning protection standards without the requisite infor- mation being provided to them on the reasons why they might select a particular sol- ution to a problem under consideration instead of another one. However, several companies have been introducing fraudulent devices, claiming them to be superior to more conventional protection equipment and procedures, taking advantage of a gap in the knowledge of lightning protection engineers in decision-making positions. It is only through the provision of a thorough education to the engineers examining the basic scientific problems associated with lightning protection that one can remedy this situation. This book is intended to provide such an education to satisfy the needs of those working or studying in the field of lightning protection.”, “author” : { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “Cooray”, “given” : “Vernon”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” } , “container-title” : “Ieej Transactions On Power And Energy”, “id” : “ITEM-1”, “issue” : “12”, “issued” : { “date-parts” : “2007” }, “number-of-pages” : “1258-1264”, “title” : “Lightning Protection”, “type” : “book”, “volume” : “127” }, “uris” : “http://www.mendeley.com/documents/?uuid=85bafedd-2aee-4ad0-8efc-0c1098cb7286” } , “mendeley” : { “formattedCitation” : “3”, “plainTextFormattedCitation” : “3”, “previouslyFormattedCitation” : “3” }, “properties” : { }, “schema” : “https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json” }3. But, if the value of earth resistance is more than that value, there are several options that can be applied to lower it down. The length of earth electrode can be increased to put it deeper into the ground or multi earth electrodes can be used. Since the soil resistivity also affects the value of earth resistance, an enhancing material such as salt can be used to treat the soil since it can help to decrease the resistivity of the soil.

Soil Resistivity
As stated before, soil resistivity is another major parameter that gives effect to value of earth resistance and it is measured either in ?-m or ?-cm. The information regarding soil resistivity can contribute to provide effective grounding system because it can help to determine size of earth electrode, depth of earth electrode into the ground and best location for positioning the earth electrode. Due to these reasons, it is vital to possess knowledge about soil resistivity.

Type of soil gives significant effect to resistivity of the soil. Note that, moisture content in the soil affects the resistivity since drier soil has higher resistivity. Other than that, content of minerals in the soil such as salt or chemical compound also can vary the soil resistivity. For example, soil that with less salt content has lower resistance. Soil resistivity can be affected by temperature because during high temperature, the resistance of the soil become lowADDIN CSL_CITATION { “citationItems” : { “id” : “ITEM-1”, “itemData” : { “author” : { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “Lim”, “given” : “Siow Chun”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” }, { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “Gomes”, “given” : “Chandima”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” }, { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “Zainal”, “given” : “Mohd”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” }, { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “Ab”, “given” : “Abidin”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” } , “container-title” : “8th Asia Pacific International Conference on Lightning”, “id” : “ITEM-1”, “issued” : { “date-parts” : “2013” }, “page” : “145-148”, “title” : “Preliminary Grounding Performance of Bentonite Mixed Concrete Encased Steel Cage under High Soil Resistivity Condition”, “type” : “article-journal” }, “uris” : “http://www.mendeley.com/documents/?uuid=f4103c63-faae-4166-ac4f-811f4fdcc6c2” } , “mendeley” : { “formattedCitation” : “6”, “plainTextFormattedCitation” : “6”, “previouslyFormattedCitation” : “6” }, “properties” : { }, “schema” : “https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json” }6. Value of earth resistance can vary by time since many factors like moisture content; mineral content and temperature also change the soil resistivity. But, the value should be kept within standard value to ensure the reliability of grounding system.
1056005-58052300
Table 2.12 : Resistivity of soil.ADDIN CSL_CITATION { “citationItems” : { “id” : “ITEM-1”, “itemData” : { “DOI” : “10.1541/ieejpes.127.1258”, “ISBN” : “9781849191067”, “ISSN” : “03854213”, “abstract” : “Lightning protection relies upon the application of some of the principles of electricity and the physics of electrical discharges to mitigate the effects of direct currents and electromagnetic fields generated by lightning discharges. Structures, storage facilities for flammable and explosive materials, power distribution and transmission systems, telecommunication systems and electrical and electronic equipment all require such protection. Since the initial launch of the concept of lightning protection by Benjamin Franklin in 1753, the subject of lightning protection has made significant progress, especially in the last century, thanks to experimental observations of the mechanism and properties of lightning flashes. This book summarises the state of the art of lightning protection as it stands today. The information provided in this book should be of value to professionals who are engaged in the engineering practice of lightning protection as a source of reference and to engineering students as a textbook. The main goal of the book is not solely to educate the reader in the art of lightning protection, but to provide the necessary scientific background to enable him or her to make appropriate judgments in situations where conventional engineering solutions might be inadequate. Many engineers engaged in lightning protection have learned their work by applying lightning protection standards without the requisite infor- mation being provided to them on the reasons why they might select a particular sol- ution to a problem under consideration instead of another one. However, several companies have been introducing fraudulent devices, claiming them to be superior to more conventional protection equipment and procedures, taking advantage of a gap in the knowledge of lightning protection engineers in decision-making positions. It is only through the provision of a thorough education to the engineers examining the basic scientific problems associated with lightning protection that one can remedy this situation. This book is intended to provide such an education to satisfy the needs of those working or studying in the field of lightning protection.”, “author” : { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “Cooray”, “given” : “Vernon”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” } , “container-title” : “Ieej Transactions On Power And Energy”, “id” : “ITEM-1”, “issue” : “12”, “issued” : { “date-parts” : “2007” }, “number-of-pages” : “1258-1264”, “title” : “Lightning Protection”, “type” : “book”, “volume” : “127” }, “uris” : “http://www.mendeley.com/documents/?uuid=85bafedd-2aee-4ad0-8efc-0c1098cb7286” } , “mendeley” : { “formattedCitation” : “3”, “plainTextFormattedCitation” : “3”, “previouslyFormattedCitation” : “3” }, “properties” : { }, “schema” : “https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json” }3
Lightning Phenomenon in Malaysia
Lightning strike studied on the earth has been predictable at 100 times every second. Thus, many countries grieve from Major losses due to lightning happening. Write up from United State National Lightning Institute, revealed that Malaysia has the most lightning activities in the world. The capital, Kuala Lumpur has the average thunder level on the day basis from 180 to 260 Day per class , which can be considered as highADDIN CSL_CITATION { “citationItems” : { “id” : “ITEM-1”, “itemData” : { “DOI” : “10.11113/jt.v66.1507”, “ISSN” : “01279696”, “abstract” : “Lightning strike is an environmental phenomenon that dominates the factors of supplemental deaths as well as injury due to its extremely high current and voltage surge. Many fatalities caused by lightning have been reported whereby some were deaths and some were able to survive with injuries either on a short or long term effect with permanent injury. Since Malaysia is one of the countries in the world with very high lightning activities, a laudable statistics data about death and injuries is needed to increase public awareness on the dangers of lightning. This work manifests an overview, recent statistical data and analysis on lightning fatalities in Malaysia which includes the year, gender, age, status, month, state, activities and location of where the victim was hit by lightning. It describes the favorable image to illustrate the jeopardy of lightning to the public by employing case study and statistical analysis based on medical and newspaper report. u00a9 2014 Penerbit UTM Press. All rights reserved.”, “author” : { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “Ahmad”, “given” : “N. A.”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” }, { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “Abu Bakar”, “given” : “Nur Najihah”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” }, { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “Adzis”, “given” : “Z.”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” } , “container-title” : “Jurnal Teknologi (Sciences and Engineering)”, “id” : “ITEM-1”, “issue” : “1”, “issued” : { “date-parts” : “2013” }, “page” : “9-13”, “title” : “Study of lightning fatalities in Malaysia from 2004 to 2012”, “type” : “article-journal”, “volume” : “66” }, “uris” : “http://www.mendeley.com/documents/?uuid=deb9612a-a64a-4f41-adea-410fa35f6d58” } , “mendeley” : { “formattedCitation” : “2”, “plainTextFormattedCitation” : “2”, “previouslyFormattedCitation” : “2” }, “properties” : { }, “schema” : “https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json” }2 . Lightning ground flash compactness in Malaysia is about 15 to 20 strikes per km per year
In addition, the location of Malaysia bound near the equator and as a result, Malaysia is classified to have high lightning and thunderstorm activities. Malaysia Meteorological Services perceived that thunder occur 200 days per year in MalaysiaADDIN CSL_CITATION { “citationItems” : { “id” : “ITEM-1”, “itemData” : { “DOI” : “10.11113/jt.v66.1507”, “ISSN” : “01279696”, “abstract” : “Lightning strike is an environmental phenomenon that dominates the factors of supplemental deaths as well as injury due to its extremely high current and voltage surge. Many fatalities caused by lightning have been reported whereby some were deaths and some were able to survive with injuries either on a short or long term effect with permanent injury. Since Malaysia is one of the countries in the world with very high lightning activities, a laudable statistics data about death and injuries is needed to increase public awareness on the dangers of lightning. This work manifests an overview, recent statistical data and analysis on lightning fatalities in Malaysia which includes the year, gender, age, status, month, state, activities and location of where the victim was hit by lightning. It describes the favorable image to illustrate the jeopardy of lightning to the public by employing case study and statistical analysis based on medical and newspaper report. u00a9 2014 Penerbit UTM Press. All rights reserved.”, “author” : { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “Ahmad”, “given” : “N. A.”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” }, { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “Abu Bakar”, “given” : “Nur Najihah”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” }, { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “Adzis”, “given” : “Z.”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” } , “container-title” : “Jurnal Teknologi (Sciences and Engineering)”, “id” : “ITEM-1”, “issue” : “1”, “issued” : { “date-parts” : “2013” }, “page” : “9-13”, “title” : “Study of lightning fatalities in Malaysia from 2004 to 2012”, “type” : “article-journal”, “volume” : “66” }, “uris” : “http://www.mendeley.com/documents/?uuid=deb9612a-a64a-4f41-adea-410fa35f6d58” } , “mendeley” : { “formattedCitation” : “2”, “plainTextFormattedCitation” : “2”, “previouslyFormattedCitation” : “2” }, “properties” : { }, “schema” : “https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json” }2
Lightning basically happens in inter monsoon season which is from the month of April to May and October to November. In Malaysia, thunderstorms mostly grow in the afternoon and evening.

Case Lightning in Malaysia
Malaysia ranks third in the world for lightning density. In year 2003 based on scholarly report for Optical Transient Detector Lightning by Dr Huge J. Christian, Malaysia recorded 48.3 flashes/km2/year lightning. The Malaysian Meteorological Department (MetMalaysia) discovered that the inter-monsoon periods (April to May and October) recorded most lightning occurrences. In addition, lightning is more regular between June and September during south-west monsoon and less cases of lightning between December to March during north-east monsoon.

Table 2.14.1: damage cause by lightning Malaysia

Figure 2.14.2: Death cause of lightning
METHODOLOGYIntroductionThe explanation of the methods and techniques that have been taken in completing this project will be discussed in this chapter including measurement tools and computer-aided software that have been used along this project
Application for Plan of FKEE Building
In order to get accurate dimension of FKEE building, the plan of the building is needed. So, a formal letter that proved by supervisor has been prepared to apply for plan of FKEE building from Jabatan pengurusan Harta, Universiti Malaysia Pahang.

The plan has been given in softcopy format using AutoCAD for whole FKEE building. Initially, the person in-charge gave two options either plan in softcopy format using AutoCAD or hardcopy using A3 paper. Softcopy has been chosen since it is easier to read and understand more.

Observation of Lighnting Protection System
As stated in scope of this project, only external lightning protection system consists of air terminal system, down conductor system and grounding system will be considered.

Before perform the analysis, the existing lightning protection system that available at FKEE building structure needs to be observed. During observation, locations of air terminal, down conductor and earth electrode have been determined and marked in plan of FKEE building given by Jabatan Pengurusan Harta, UMP. The numbers of those lightning protection system components also been counted and recorded.

Measurement of Dimension of FKEE building
The dimension of FKEE building given by Jabatan Pengurusan Harta, UMP is in scale format and need to be converted to actual value in metre (m) based on the given scale (1: 200).

Manual measurement using measuring tape also performed to make sure than the dimensions are correct by comparing the value from measurement to value from the plan. It has been found that value from measurement does not match with value from plan. Since, the correct value is needed for analysis; the actual value from manual measurement has been taken.

Measurement of Earth Resistance and Dimension of Down Conductor
For measurement of earth resistance, measurement tool which is Earth Tester Kyoritsu has been used. This earth tester has three probes with different colours, green probe connected to earth electrode under test, yellow probe is potential probe located 5 metre from green probe, and red probe is current probe located 5 metre from yellow probe.

For measurement of dimension of down conductor, a ruler (15 centimetres long) has been used since the dimension that needs to be compared to standard value must be in millimetre unit. The width and thickness of copper tape of down conductor have been measured and recorded.

center83820
Figure 3.5: Connection for earth resistance measurement
Analysis of Data using AutoCAD
Computer software which are AutoCAD and Sketch Up have been used to perform fixed angle method and rolling sphere method to get proper protection area of lightning protection system since only using simulation those mehtods can be applied.

RESULTS AND DISCUSSION
IntroductionThis chapter will cover all result from observation and measurement that have been done in completing this project. The analysis of these result will be explained through this chapter.

Actual dimension of FKEE building
The actual dimension of fkee building has been recorded in form AutoCAD drawing since it is easier to understand and all values of dimension are clearly shown. The standard fo measerument which is metre has been used in all values of dimension

Figure 4.2.1: Dimension for block 1 and 2

Figure 4.2.2: Dimension for Block 3 and Lab E

Figure 4.2.3: Dimension for Block pentadbiran
Existing lightning protection in FKEE building
In FKEE building, the existing lightning protection system of air termination is using method Mesh. The level of LPS for this method is they using level 2. The network for mesh is 7.5m x 8.4m.

Figure 4.3.1Mesh network for FKEE block 1

Figure 4.3.2Mesh network for FKEE block 2

Figure 4.3.3 Mesh network for FKEE block 3

Figure 4.3.4Mesh network for FKEE block pentadbiran
Determine the level of lightning protection system on FKEE building
To determine level of lighting protection system, use excel to make calculation for this system.

  Abbreviations:  
  Nd Yearly expected lightning strike frequency to the structure  
  Nc Tolerable lightning strike frequency to the structure  
  Ng Yearly average flash density in the region (fl/km2/year)  
  Ae Equivalent collective area of the structure (km2)  
  C1 Environmental coefficient  
  C2 Structure Coefficient  
  C3 Structure Contents Coefficient  
  C4 Structure Occupancy Coefficient  
  C5 Lightning Consequence Coefficient  
   
  Building Dimensions:  
  Length(L) (m): 217.0 Width(W) (m): 167.0 Height(H) (m): 9.5  
   
Collective Area Calculation (Ae):  
   
  Rectangular structure  
   
  Ae = LW + 6H(L+W) + ? 9 H2  
   
  Ae = 60677.5 m2  
   
   
  Determination of Location Factor (C1):  
   
  C1 Relative Structure Location  
  0.25 Structure surrounded by taller structures or trees within a distance of 3H.  
  0.5 Structure surrounded by structures of equal or lesser height within a distance of 3H.  
  1.0 Isolated structure, with no other structures located within a distance of 3H.  
  2.0 Isolated structure on hilltop.  
   
   
  C1 = 0.50  
                     
                     
  Determination of Average Flash Density (Ng):  
   
 
 
   
  -3706496-83820000  
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
  Location: Malaysia Ng = 30.0 fl/km2/year  
   
   
  Calculation of Expected Lightning Strike Frequency (Nd):  
   
  Nd = (Ng) x (Ae) x (C1) x 10 -6  
   
  Nd = 0.9102 event/year .  
   
   
  Determination of Construction Coefficient (C2):  
   
  Roof Material  
  Structure Material Metal Nonmetallic Combustible  
  Metal 0.5 1.0 2.0  
  Nonmetallic 1.0 1.0 2.5  
  Combustible 2.0 2.5 3.0  
   
   
  C2 = 0.5  
   
  Determination of Structure Contents Coefficient (C3):  
   
  C3 Structure Contents    
  0.5 Low value and noncombustible.    
  1.0 Standard value and noncombustible.    
  2.0 High value, moderate combustibility.    
  3.0 Exceptional value, flammable liquids, computer or electronics.    
  4.0 Exceptional value, irreplaceable cultural items.    
   
   
  C3 = 3.0  
   
  Determination of Structure Occupancy Coefficient (C4):  
   
  C4 Structure Occupancy    
  0.5 Unoccupied.    
  1.0 Normally Occupied.    
  3.0 Difficult to evacuate or risk of panic.    
  C4 = 1.0  
   
   
  Determination of Lightning Consequence Coefficient (C5):  
   
  C5 Lightning Consequence  
  1.0 Continuity of facility services not required, no environmental impact.  
  5.0 Continuity of facility services required, no environmental impact.  
  10.0 Consequences to the environment.  
   
   
  C5 = 5.0  
   
   
  Calculation of Tolerable Lightning Strike Frequency (Nc):  
   
  Nc = 1.5 x 10 -3    
  (C2)(C3)(C4)(C5)    
   
  Nc = 0.0002 event/year  
   
                     
  Risk Calculation:  
   
  if Nd ? Nc Hence, LPS May Be Optional  
    Nd > Nc Hence, LPS Should Be Installed  
   
  Accordingly,  
   
  Lighting Protection System ( LPS )  
  010477500  
   
   
   
   
  Should Be Installed  
Therefore the level LPS can be calculate by using formula;
E=1-(NcNd)Nc = 0.0002
Nd = 0.9102
E = 0.99 ( LPS level 1)
Analysis of Lightning Protection System at FKEE building using Rolling Sphere Method
Based on the observation, using rolling sphere method for air-termination is more safe and accurate than mesh method and fixed angel method. This is because it applied concept of the lightning strike distance.

Calculating the distance between 2 rods
From formula that given,
d=2?(2rh-h2)Where d = distance between 2 rods
r = radius of the rolling sphere method
h = height of the rod (m)
Using table of level LPS for rolling sphere, the radius of sphere is 20m. Height of the rod commonly in market using 0.5m. Therefore distance between 2 rods is 8.88m.
Conclusion for distance between 2 rods is less distance between 2 rods, more surface area that can be protect.

Rolling Sphere method on Block 1
Using autocad in this analysis to get protection area.

Figure 4.5.2.1Rolling sphere method from side view
5969001574165Protected area
00Protected area
16351251450340
Figure 4.5.2.2penetration depth of rolling sphere method
Figure above show that penetration depth of rolling sphere method. Less penetration depth, more safe the building. The calculation show below.

p=r-?(r2-(d2)²)
Wherep = penetration depth of rolling sphere method
r = radius of sphere
d = distance between 2 rods
p=20-?(202-(8.882)²)
p = 0.499
The number of air-termination rod for block 1 left wing is 48 rods. Also same for the right wing because the dimension of the building is same.

Rolling Sphere method on Block 2
Using Autocad to analyze the protection of FKEE block 2. The distance between 2 rods is 8.88m and penetration depth is 0.499. The number of air termination rod for block 2 (bilik kuliah) is 16 rods. The number of air termination rod for block 2 (bengkel) is 20 rods.

2282825193548000248285017354553549650196405526384252237740Protected area
00Protected area

Figure 4.5.3.1Rolling sphere method from side view
25400001769745Protected area Using autocad to analyze the protection of FKEE block 2. The distance between 2 rods is 8.88m and penetration depth is 0.499. The number of air termination rod for block 2 (bilik kuliah) is 16 rods. The number of air termination rod for block 2 (bengkel) is 20 rods.

Using autocad to analyze the protection of FKEE block 2. The distance between 2 rods is 8.88m and penetration depth is 0.499. The number of air termination rod for block 2 (bilik kuliah) is 16 rods. The number of air termination rod for block 2 (bengkel) is 20 rods.

00Protected area Using autocad to analyze the protection of FKEE block 2. The distance between 2 rods is 8.88m and penetration depth is 0.499. The number of air termination rod for block 2 (bilik kuliah) is 16 rods. The number of air termination rod for block 2 (bengkel) is 20 rods.

Using autocad to analyze the protection of FKEE block 2. The distance between 2 rods is 8.88m and penetration depth is 0.499. The number of air termination rod for block 2 (bilik kuliah) is 16 rods. The number of air termination rod for block 2 (bengkel) is 20 rods.

1939924148590000347345013049240029419551466850002568575118110000
Figure 4.5.3.2Rolling sphere method from front view
Rolling Sphere method on Block 3
Using Autocad to analyze the protection of FKEE block 3. The distance between 2 rods is 8.88m and penetration depth is 0.499. The number of air termination rod for block 3 (maintenance room) is 28 rods. The number of air termination rod for block 3 (lab e) is 18 rods.

3149600138430000370459015557500027971751793875Protected area Using autocad to analyze the protection of FKEE block 2. The distance between 2 rods is 8.88m and penetration depth is 0.499. The number of air termination rod for block 2 (bilik kuliah) is 16 rods. The number of air termination rod for block 2 (bengkel) is 20 rods.

Using autocad to analyze the protection of FKEE block 2. The distance between 2 rods is 8.88m and penetration depth is 0.499. The number of air termination rod for block 2 (bilik kuliah) is 16 rods. The number of air termination rod for block 2 (bengkel) is 20 rods.

00Protected area Using autocad to analyze the protection of FKEE block 2. The distance between 2 rods is 8.88m and penetration depth is 0.499. The number of air termination rod for block 2 (bilik kuliah) is 16 rods. The number of air termination rod for block 2 (bengkel) is 20 rods.

Using autocad to analyze the protection of FKEE block 2. The distance between 2 rods is 8.88m and penetration depth is 0.499. The number of air termination rod for block 2 (bilik kuliah) is 16 rods. The number of air termination rod for block 2 (bengkel) is 20 rods.

Figure 4.5.4.1rolling sphere method from side view
365442515944850027305001829435Protected area
00Protected area

Rolling Sphere method on Block Pentadbiran
Using autocad to analyze the protection of FKEE block 3. The distance between 2 rods is 8.88m and penetration depth is 0.499. The number of air termination rod for block Pentadbiran is 77 rods.

3692524128015900396874917564100033051752112010Protected area Using autocad to analyze the protection of FKEE block 2. The distance between 2 rods is 8.88m and penetration depth is 0.499. The number of air termination rod for block 2 (bilik kuliah) is 16 rods. The number of air termination rod for block 2 (bengkel) is 20 rods.

Using autocad to analyze the protection of FKEE block 2. The distance between 2 rods is 8.88m and penetration depth is 0.499. The number of air termination rod for block 2 (bilik kuliah) is 16 rods. The number of air termination rod for block 2 (bengkel) is 20 rods.

00Protected area Using autocad to analyze the protection of FKEE block 2. The distance between 2 rods is 8.88m and penetration depth is 0.499. The number of air termination rod for block 2 (bilik kuliah) is 16 rods. The number of air termination rod for block 2 (bengkel) is 20 rods.

Using autocad to analyze the protection of FKEE block 2. The distance between 2 rods is 8.88m and penetration depth is 0.499. The number of air termination rod for block 2 (bilik kuliah) is 16 rods. The number of air termination rod for block 2 (bengkel) is 20 rods.

Figure 4.5.5.1rolling sphere method from side view
3502024186562900305752517468850024257002037080Protected area Using autocad to analyze the protection of FKEE block 2. The distance between 2 rods is 8.88m and penetration depth is 0.499. The number of air termination rod for block 2 (bilik kuliah) is 16 rods. The number of air termination rod for block 2 (bengkel) is 20 rods.

Using autocad to analyze the protection of FKEE block 2. The distance between 2 rods is 8.88m and penetration depth is 0.499. The number of air termination rod for block 2 (bilik kuliah) is 16 rods. The number of air termination rod for block 2 (bengkel) is 20 rods.

00Protected area Using autocad to analyze the protection of FKEE block 2. The distance between 2 rods is 8.88m and penetration depth is 0.499. The number of air termination rod for block 2 (bilik kuliah) is 16 rods. The number of air termination rod for block 2 (bengkel) is 20 rods.

Using autocad to analyze the protection of FKEE block 2. The distance between 2 rods is 8.88m and penetration depth is 0.499. The number of air termination rod for block 2 (bilik kuliah) is 16 rods. The number of air termination rod for block 2 (bengkel) is 20 rods.

Figure 4.5.5.2rolling sphere method from 3D view.

Earth Resistance Measurement and Calculation of soil resistivity
The method to measure earth resistance using Kyoritsu 4105A digital earth tester. From observation on FKEE building, the earth resistance for each earth terminal is quite same. This is because of the rod that has been used same with length of 3600mm with diameter 16mm. The maximum earth resistance is 10 ohm that give by Malaysia Standard.

Figure 4.6.1Earth tester Kyoritsu
Another parameter that is important to evaluate the reliability of earth termination system at FKEE building is soil resistivity. Calculation of soil resistivity show below:

Figure 4.6.2concept of soil resistivity calculation
l = 5 meter, d = 10 meter
Soil resistivity =2?lR/ln?(8ld)= (2? x 5 x 3.4)/ln?(8 x510)= 77.05 ?-m
Analysis on Down Conductor System at FKEE building
Analysis on Down Conductor System on Block 1
Generally, each down conductor must be connected to the earth terminal. Since there are some number of earth terminal, so the number of down conductor also same. In FKEE they use copper tape to conduct lightning current throw ground. Dimension of copper tape are followed by Malaysia Standard.

Number of Down conductor Dimension
20 3 x 25 mm

Figure 4.7.1Location of earth terminal for block 1
Analysis on Down Conductor System on Block 2
Number of down conductor Dimension
15 3 x 25mm

Figure 4.7.2Location of earth terminal for block 2
Analysis on Down Conductor System on Block 3
Number of down conductor Dimension
17 3 x 25mm

Figure 4.7.3Location of earth terminal for block 3
Analysis on Down Conductor System on Block Pentadbiran
Number of down conductor Dimension
19 3 x 25mm

Figure 4.7.4Location of earth terminal for block pentadbiran
DISCUSSION AND CONCLUSION
IntroductionThis chapter will discuss the findings from previous chapter and comes with recommendation or improvment that can be consider to be applied at FKEE building.

Protection system existing at FKEE building
From analysis of protection area using mesh method, this method are not good as rolling sphere method. In order to protect the whole of FKEE building in case of direct lightning strike, there are two option that can be consider to improve the protection area of structure show below:
The existing mesh method increase to level 1 LPS.

Change mesh method to rolling sphere method.

Increase the length of air terminal when using rolling sphere method.

In this project, option number 2 has been proposed to apply at FKEE building. By using AutoCad, it has been found that the protected area from using rolling sphere method is more higher than mesh method.

Value of Earth Resistance and Soil Resistivity
The performance of LPS is also depends on earth resistance and soil resistivity. Theoretically, the value of earth resistance should be 10? of less that given by Malaysian Standard to ensure that reliability of earth terminal system.

So at FKEE, the value of earth resistance is 3.4? and the soil resistivity is 7705?-cm. In this case, we can conclude that the earth resistance is good enough for earth terminal. From calculation of soil resistivity, the type of soil that use is moist gravel.

Dimension of Down Conductor at FKEE building
In this project, only dimension of the copper tape at FKEE building is measured.

Theoretically, more bigger size of copper, more good conductor for lightning strike to earth. So the minimal value of dimension that give by Malaysian Standard is 25mm x 3mm.

At FKEE building, the copper tape have been measured. The dimension of tape is 25mm x 3mm and status of the tape is passed for Malaysia Standard.

For the recommendation, as we state above more large dimension of down conductor more high current that can flow through it to earth. So our recommendation is change copper tape from 25mm x 3mm to 25mm x 6mm.

Conclusion
First of all, it can be conclude that the objectives of this project is have been fulfilled from observation done, data from measurement, data analysis and recommendation being proposed. The air terminal system that existing at FKEE building is mesh method and it is not cover all structure. So the option being proposed can be consider by concerned party to overcome the problem.

Moreover, the down conductor system is reliable and the specification follow standard. The earth resistance should be low as possible.

Future Work
In the future, the computer aided software that can be simulate lightning flash such as SeSShield, Python and OPR Designer could be used to get more accurate finding about protection area of building. In this project, the class of lightning protection system for existing FKEE building is level 2. So for the future work it can be upgrade to class 1.

Surge protection device (SPD) also can do for future work. This device not only protect structure from outside but also from inside. So the equipment in FKEE building is more safe when lightning strike occur.