Bibliography

1- world.4- Antarctica has the largest land covered

1- Roald Amundsen Norwegian explorer was the first to reach the South Pole.2- The total area of Antarctica is about 14 million square kilometers.

3- Antarctica is the fifth largest continent in the world.4- Antarctica has the largest land covered with ice; about 90% of the world’s ice is concentrated here.5- 99% of Antarctica is covered by ice.6- Antarctica was discovered in 1820.7- Antarctica is around 1.3 times bigger than Europe.8- As Antarctica is in the southern hemisphere, all the season are opposite of north.

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9- If Antarctica was not covered with ice, then the height of the continent would be only 410 meters.10- Antarctica is the windiest continent; in some part of the continent, winds can reach the speed of 320km/h.11- Antarctica is driest, coldest and highest place on the planet.

12- The lowest temperature was recorded -89.6 degree Celsius at Vostok Station.13- 14.5 degree Celsius is the highest temperature ever recorded on Antarctica.14- To work in Antarctica it is necessary that your wisdom tooth and appendix is removed.

15- The average thickness of ice sheet is 2133 meters.16- There are no flying insects in Antarctica due to the wind.17- Antarctica is the only continent with no time zone.18- No country owns Antarctica.19- There are no permanent residents on Antarctica.20- The ice sheet is about 20 million years old.21- Lake Vostok is freshwater lake buried beneath the ice of Antarctica.

22- The highest point of Antarctica is the Vinson Massif at 4,987 meters.23- There are no land mammals on Antarctica continent.24- Antarctica has the flag of its own.

25- Since 1980, Antarctica is open to tourists.26- Antarctica is the only place on the earth where the emperor penguins live.27- If ice of Antarctica will melt then the level of oceans will increase by 60 meters.28- The temporary population of Antarctica is about 4,000 people.29- There are no polar bears on Antarctica.

30- The cleanest sea in the world is in Antarctica, the transparency of water allows you to see objects at a depth of 80 meters.31- The fishes of Antarctica don’t have hemoglobin, their blood has another substance that acts as antifreeze. 32- There are rivers in the Antartica. The most famous is Onyx River, it flows for only 2 months of summers.

33- Emilio Marcos Palma was the first Argentinian man born on Antarctica, in 1978. 34- In Antarctica, you can go through all 24 time zones in a few seconds.35- Lake Vostok was hidden from humanity for 14,000,000 years36- Antarctica is the only continent on which there are no native species of ants.

37- 40 000 tourists visit Antarctica annually.38- There are no countries in Antartica, it is governed by international Treaty.39- In Antarctica there are no trees, there grows only 2 types of flowers- Antarctic hair grass and Antarctic pearlwort.40- Belgica Antarctica is the largest insect of Antarctica. It is only 2-6 mm long.41- An Antarctic blue whale consumes about 4 million shrimp in one day42- Along the coast of Antarctica, there are often found wrecked ships.

43- The largest ozone hole is above Antarctica.44- The largest iceberg on the planet is located in the waters of Antarctica.45- Since 1991, mining operations have been banned in Antarctica.46- The continent has its own domain name and a unique telephone code.47- 53 million years ago palm trees used to grow along the bank of Antarctica.

48- Metallica was the first band to perform on Antarctica.49- In Antartica, there is a fire station and there is a staff work on it.50- There are 1150 different species of fungi grow in Antarctica.

51- A military installation, nuclear power plant installation, mining is strictly prohibited.52- In the ice of Antarctica, new bacteria unknown to modern science were discovered.53- The world’s oldest sperm was discovered. Fossilized spermatozoa preserved within the secreted wall layers of a 50 million years old clitellate cocoon.54- There are 300 lakes beneath Antarctica.55- There were many abandon places in Antarctica but now it is a tourist attraction.

56- Some part of the continent did not receive any rainfall or snowfall for the last 2 million years.57- 90% of meteorites come from Antarctica.58- The Transantarctic Mountains is among the world’s longest mountain range. It divides the continent into east and west part. 59- There is a waterfall in Antarctica, the water fall here is blood red in color.60- There are at least seven churches in Antarctica.61- The largest ice shelf of Antarctica is Ross Ice Shelf.

it covers the area of 197,000 square miles.62- Mount Erebus is the southernmost active volcano on the planet, is in Antarctica.63- On 1st December 1959, the first Antarctic treaty was signed by twelve countries. Forty-eight nations have signed it now.64- There are total eight working research stations on the continent.

65- Felicity Aston was the first person to ski across Antarctica powered by human muscles. It took her 59 days to cover a distance of 1,744 kilometers.66- The only warm-blooded animal that remains on Antarctica throughout the winter is male Emperor Penguin.67- The largest iceberg broke away from Ross Ice Shelf in the year 2000.

It was 270 km long and 40 km wide.68- In Antarctica there is even a bar owned by Ukraine, it is the most southernmost bar in the world.69- There are two active volcanoes on Antarctica.70- Fossils of herbivorous dinosaurs were discovered on the continent.